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The simpler, craft-like inventions on the other hand, were said to be made by men who are. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Elite 893 Words | 3 Pages.
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Get On the cumc new courseworks Bus: The Freedom Riders of 1961. A Freedom Bus in flames, six miles southwest of Anniston, Ala., May 14, 1961. (Birmingham Public Library) Oxford University Press hide caption. A Freedom Bus in flames, six miles southwest of artist cowboy essay Anniston, Ala., May 14, 1961. Cumc New Courseworks? (Birmingham Public Library) Oxford University Press. Freedom Riders Jimmy McDonald, left, and america artist charlie russell Hank Thomas and regular passenger Roberta Holmes sit in new courseworks front of the burned-out shell of a Freedom Bus on write a good social essay May 14, 1961. Cumc? Oxford University Press hide caption.
Freedom Riders Jimmy McDonald, left, and Hank Thomas and regular passenger Roberta Holmes sit in term front of the burned-out shell of a Freedom Bus on May 14, 1961. Oxford University Press. Ku Klux Klansmen beat black bystander George Webb in the Birmingham Trailways bus station, May 14, 1961. The man with his back to the camera (center right) is FBI undercover agent Gary Thomas Rowe. Oxford University Press hide caption. Ku Klux Klansmen beat black bystander George Webb in the Birmingham Trailways bus station, May 14, 1961. The man with his back to the camera (center right) is FBI undercover agent Gary Thomas Rowe. Oxford University Press. Jim Peck, seated, talks with a Justice Dept. representative and Ben Cox on the freedom plane to New Orleans, May 15, 1961. Photo by Theodore Gaffney. Oxford University Press hide caption.
In 1961, the Freedom Riders set out for the Deep South to defy Jim Crow laws and call for change. Cumc New Courseworks? They were met by america artist cowboy essay favorite roundup hatred and violence — and local police often refused to intervene. But the Riders' efforts transformed the civil rights movement. Raymond Arsenault is the author of Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice . The book details how volunteers — both black and cumc white — traveled to Mississippi and Alabama to fight segregation in transit systems. Despite being backed by recent federal rulings that it was unconstitutional to segregate bus riders, the homework jungle Freedom Riders met with obstinate resistance — as in Birmingham and Montgomery, where white supremacists attacked bus depots themselves. In Freedom Riders , Arsenault details how the cumc new courseworks first Freedom Rides developed, from the personal level to the legal maneuvering involved. His narrative touches on elements from the jails of Alabama to the Kennedy White House. Arsenault is the John Hope Franklin Professor of Southern History and co-director of the homework form Florida Studies Program at the University of South Florida in St. Petersburg. New Courseworks? His previous writing includes Land of Sunshine,State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern Florida and Crucible of Liberty: 200 Years of the Bill of Rights , which he edited.
Read an excerpt from Freedom Riders : We had most trouble, it turned into a struggle, Half way 'cross Alabam, And that 'hound broke down, and left us all stranded, In downtown Birmingham. Jim Farmer's unexpected departure placed a heavy burden on Jim Peck, who suddenly found himself in charge of the Freedom Ride. As Farmer left for the Atlanta airport, Peck could not help wondering if he would ever see his old friend again. They had been through a lot together — surviving the depths of the mobility shift assay protocol Cold War and CORE's lean years, not to mention the cumc new courseworks first ten days of the Freedom Ride. Now Peck had to go on alone, perhaps to artist charlie cowboy essay favorite, glory, but more likely to an untimely rendezvous with violence, or even death.
When Peck phoned Fred Shuttlesworth, the cumc new courseworks outspoken pastor of artist charlie favorite roundup Birmingham's Bethel Baptist Church and the leader of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights, to give him the exact arrival times of the cumc new courseworks two Freedom Buses, the normally unflappable minister offered an alarming picture of what the Freedom Riders could expect once they reached Birmingham. The city was alive with rumors that a white mob planned to greet the electrophoretic mobility Riders at the downtown bus stations. Shuttlesworth was not privy to FBI surveillance and did not know any of the details, but he urged Peck to be careful. Peck, trying to avoid a last-minute panic, relayed Shuttlesworth's warning to the group in a calm and matter-of-fact fashion. He also repeated Tom Gaither's warning about cumc new courseworks Anniston, a rest stop on the bus route to Birmingham. But he quickly added that he had no reason to paper, believe the Riders would encounter any serious trouble prior to their arrival in downtown Birmingham. Cumc? Barring any unforeseen problems, the four-hour ride would give them plenty of time to prepare a properly nonviolent response to how to write social essay, the waiting mob — if, in fact, the cumc new courseworks mob existed. Faced with staggered bus schedules, the two groups of Freedom Riders left Atlanta an hour apart.
The Greyhound group, with Joe Perkins in charge, was the first to leave, at 11:00 A.M. The bus was more than half empty, unusual for the Atlanta-to-Birmingham run. Fourteen passengers were on homework jungle board: five regular passengers, seven Freedom Riders — Genevieve Hughes, Bert Bigelow, Hank Thomas, Jimmy McDonald, Mae Frances Moultrie, Joe Perkins, Ed Blankenheim — and cumc new courseworks two journalists, Charlotte Devree and Moses Newson. Among the to buy regular passengers were Roy Robinson, the cumc new courseworks manager f the Atlanta Greyhound station, and two undercover plainclothes agents of the Alabama Highway Patrol, Corporals Ell Cowling and Harry Sims. Both Cowling and Sims sat in the back of the bus, several rows behind the scattered Freedom Riders, who had no inkling of who these two seemingly innocuous white men actually were.
Following the where to buy orders of Floyd Mann, the director of the Alabama Highway Patrol, Cowling carried a hidden microphone designed to eavesdrop on the Riders. Unsure of the Freedom Ride's itinerary, Mann — and Governor John Patterson — wanted Cowling to gather information on new courseworks the Riders and their plans. During the ninety-minute trip to Tallapoosa, the last stop in Georgia, on Highway 78, none of the passengers said very much, other than a few words of nervous small talk. Around one o'clock the bus crossed the Alabama line and followed the road in a southwesterly arc to Heflin, a small country town on electrophoretic mobility shift assay the edge of the Talladega National Forest. After a brief rest stop in Heflin, the Greyhound continued west through De Armanville and Oxford before turning north on Highway 21 toward Anniston. New Courseworks? The largest city in Calhoun County and the second largest in east-central Alabama, Anniston as a no-nonsense army town that depended on nearby Fort McClellan and a sprawling ordnance depot for much of its livelihood.
Known for its hard-edged race relations, Anniston boasted a relatively large black population (approximately 30 percent in 1961), a well-established NAACP branch, and some of the how to write social science essay most aggressive and violent Klansmen in Alabama. Just south of Anniston, the driver of cumc a southbound Greyhound motioned to the driver of the Freedom Riders' bus, O. T. Jones, to pull over to the side of the road. A white man then ran across the road and yelled to Jones through the a good science window: There's an angry and cumc unruly crowd gathered at Anniston. There's a rumor that some people on how to write a good science this bus are going to stage a sit-in. New Courseworks? The terminal has been closed. Be careful. With this message the term paper Riders' worst fears seemed to be confirmed, but Joe Perkins — hoping that the warning was a bluff, or at cumc least an exaggeration — urged the driver to keep going. A minute or two later, as the bus passed the city limits, several of the Riders couldn't help but notice that Anniston's sidewalks were lined with people, an algebra term paper unusual sight on new courseworks a Sunday afternoon in a Deep South town. It seemed that everyone in social the town was out to greet us, Genevieve Hughes later commented.
Amazingly enough, Hank Thomas did not recall seeing anyone on cumc new courseworks the streets. He did remember the strange feeling that he and the other Riders experienced as the bus eased into the station parking lot just after 1:00 P.M. The station was locked shut, and there was silence — and then suddenly, as if out of nowhere, a screaming mob led by Anniston Klan leader William Chappell rushed the bus. Thomas thought he heard Jones encourage the attackers with a sly greeting. Well, boys, here they are, the algebra term driver reportedly said with a smirk. I brought you some niggers and nigger-lovers. But it all happened so fast that no one was quite sure who was saying what to whom.
As the cumc crowd of about fifty surrounded the bus, an eighteen-year-old Klansman and assay protocol ex-convict named Roger Couch stretched out on the pavement in front of the bus to block any attempt to leave, while the rest — carrying metal pipes, clubs, and new courseworks chains — milled around menacingly, some screaming, Dirty Communists and Sieg heil! There was no sign of any police, even though Herman Glass, the manager of the Anniston Greyhound station, had warned local officials earlier in the day that a potentially violent mob had gathered around the station. After the driver opened the door, Cowling and Sims hurried. to the front to prevent anyone from where dissertations find entering. New Courseworks? Leaning on the door lever, the two unarmed investigators managed to term paper, close the door and seal the bus, but they could not stop several of the most frenzied attackers from smashing windows, denting the sides of the bus, and new courseworks slashing tires. One man stood on the steps, yelling, and calling us cowards, Hughes noticed, but her attention soon turned to a second man who walked by the side of the bus, slipped a pistol from his pocket and stared at me for some minutes. When she heard a loud noise and shattering glass, she yelled, Duck, down everyone, thinking that a bullet had hit one of the windows. The projectile turned out to be a rock, but another assailant soon cracked the window above her seat with a fist full of brass knuckles. Joe Perkins's window later suffered a similar fate, as the siege continued for almost twenty minutes.
By the time the Anniston police arrived on the scene, the homework help bus looked like it had been in a serious collision. Swaggering through the crowd with billy clubs in hand, the police officers examined the broken windows and slashed tires but showed no interest in arresting anyone. After a few minutes of friendly banter with members of the crowd, the officers suddenly cleared a path and motioned for the bus to exit the parking lot. A police car escorted the battered Greyhound to the city limits but then turned back, once again leaving the cumc bus to the mercy of the mob. A long line of cars and pickup trucks, plus one car carrying a news reporter and a photographer, had followed the america artist roundup police escort from the station and was ready to resume the assault. Once the entourage reached an isolated stretch of Highway 202 east of Bynum, two of the cars (one of cumc which was driven by Roger Couch's older brother Jerome) raced around the front of the bus and then slowed to a crawl, forcing the bus driver to homework jungle, slow down. Trailing behind were thirty or forty cars and trucks jammed with shrieking whites. Many, like Chappell and the Couches, were Klansmen, though none wore hoods or robes. Some, having just come from church, were dressed in their Sunday best — coats and ties and polished shoes — and a few even had children with them. The whole scene was darkly surreal and became even more so when a pair of flat tires forced the bus driver to pull over to the side of the road in cumc new courseworks front of the Forsyth and Son grocery store six miles southwest of town, only a few hundred yards from the Anniston Army Depot.
Flinging open the door, the driver, with Robinson trailing close behind, ran into the grocery store and began calling local garages in homework jungle what turned out to be a futile effort to find replacement tires for the bus. In the meantime, the passengers were left vulnerable to a swarm of onrushing vigilantes. Cowling had just enough time to retrieve his revolver from the cumc baggage compartment before the mob surrounded the bus. The first to reach the Greyhound was a teenage boy who smashed a crowbar through one of the essay side windows. While one group of cumc new courseworks men and boys rocked the bus in a vain attempt to term paper, turn the vehicle on its side, a second tried to enter through the front door. With gun in cumc hand, Cowling stood in the doorway to block the intruders, but he soon retreated, locking the how to write social essay door behind him. For the next twenty minutes Chappell and other Klansmen pounded on the bus demanding that the cumc new courseworks Freedom Riders come out to take what was coming to them, but they stayed in their seats, even after the arrival of two highway patrolmen. When neither patrolman made any effort to disperse the crowd, Cowling, Sims, and the Riders decided to stay put. Eventually, however, two members of the mob, Roger Couch and Cecil Goober Lewallyn, decided that they had waited long enough. Shift Protocol? After returning to his car, which was parked a few yards behind the new courseworks disabled Greyhound, Lewallyn suddenly ran toward the bus and tossed a flaming bundle of rags through a broken window.
Within seconds the bundle exploded, sending dark gray smoke throughout the bus. At first, Genevieve Hughes, seated only a few feet away from the where to buy explosion, thought the bomb-thrower was just trying to scare the cumc Freedom Riders with a smoke bomb, but as the smoke got blacker and blacker and as flames began to engulf several of the upholstered seats, she realized that she and the other passengers were in serious trouble. Crouching down in the middle of the algebra paper bus, she screamed out, Is there any air up front? When no one answered, she began to panic. Oh, my God, they're going to burn us up! she yelled to the others, who were lost in a dense cloud of cumc new courseworks smoke. How To Write Social Essay? Making her way forward, she finally found an open window six rows from the front and thrust her head out, gasping for cumc new courseworks, air. As she looked out, she saw the outstretched necks of Jimmy McDonald and Charlotte Devree, who had also found open windows.
Seconds later, all three squeezed through the windows and dropped to the ground. Still choking from the smoke and fumes, they staggered across the street. Gazing back at the burning bus, they feared that the other passengers were still trapped inside, but they soon caught sight of several passengers who had escaped through the front door on russell the other side. They were all lucky to be alive. Several members of the mob had pressed against the door screaming, Burn them alive and Fry the goddamn niggers, and new courseworks the Freedom Riders had been all but doomed until an exploding fuel tank convinced the mob that the whole bus was about to explode. As the electrophoretic mobility shift protocol frightened whites retreated, Cowling pried open the door, allowing the rest of the choking passengers to new courseworks, escape. When Hank Thomas, the first Rider to exit the front of the how to write a good science bus, crawled away from the cumc doorway, a white man rushed toward him and asked, Are you all okay?
Before Thomas could answer, the man's concerned look turned into a sneer as he struck the social science astonished student in the head with a baseball bat. Thomas fell to the ground and was barely conscious as the cumc new courseworks rest of the america cowboy exiting Riders spilled out onto the grass. By this time, several of the white families living in the surrounding Bynum neighborhood had formed a small crowd in front of the grocery store. Most of the onlookers remained safely in cumc the background, but a few stepped forward to offer assistance to the Riders. One little girl, twelve-year-old Janie Miller, supplied the choking victims with water, filling and refilling a five-gallon bucket while braving the insults and taunts of Klansmen. Later ostracized and homework jungle threatened for this act of kindness, she and her family found it impossible to cumc, remain in Anniston in the aftermath of the bus bombing. Even though city leaders were quick to condemn the bombing, there was little sympathy for the Riders among local whites. How To Write A Good Essay? Indeed, while Miller was coming to the Riders' aid, some of cumc her neighbors were urging the marauding Klansmen on. At one point, with the Riders lying on homework form the ground around the bus, coughing and cumc new courseworks bleeding, the mob surged forward. But Cowling's pistol, the heat of the fire, and the acrid fumes wafting from the burning upholstery kept them away. Moments later a second fuel tank explosion drove them back even farther, and eventually a couple of warning shots fired into the air by the highway patrolmen on the scene signaled that the homework would-be lynching party was over.
As the disappointed vigilantes slipped away, Cowling, Sims, and new courseworks the patrolmen stood guard over the Riders, most of whom were lying or sitting in form a daze a few yards from the burned-out shell of the bus. But no one in a position of authority showed any interest in identifying or arresting those responsible for the assault. No one wrote down the license numbers of the Klansmen's cars and pickup trucks, and no one seemed in any hurry to call an ambulance. Several of the new courseworks Riders had inhaled smoke and homework fumes and were in serious need of medical attention, but it would be some time before any of them saw a doctor. One sympathetic white couple who lived nearby allowed Hughes to new courseworks, use their phone to homework form, call for an ambulance, and cumc when no one answered, they drove her to how to write a good social essay, the hospital. For the new courseworks rest of the stricken Riders, getting to the hospital proved to be a bit more complicated. When the ambulance called by one of the state troopers finally arrived, the driver refused to to buy find, transport any of the injured black Riders. After a few moments of awkward silence, the white Riders, already loaded into the ambulance, began to exit, insisting they could not leave their black friends behind. With this gesture — and a few stern words from Cowling — the driver's resolve weakened, and before long the integrated band was on its way to Anniston Memorial Hospital. Unfortunately, the scene at the hospital offered the new courseworks Riders little solace.
The first to algebra term, arrive, Hughes found the medical care in cumc new courseworks Anniston almost as frightening as the burning bus: There was no doctor at the hospital, only a nurse. They had me breathe pure oxygen but that only burned my throat and did not relieve the coughing. I was burning hot and my clothes were a wet mess. Algebra? After awhile Ed and Bert were brought in, choking.
We all lay on our beds and new courseworks coughed. Finally a woman doctor came in paper — she had to look up smoke poisoning before treating us. They brought in the Negro man who had been in the back of the bus with me. I pointed to him and cumc new courseworks told them to take care of him. But they did not bring him into our emergency room. I understand that they did not do anything at all for Hank. Thirteen in all were brought in, and three were admitted: Ed, the Negro man and america artist essay favorite myself. They gave me a room and I slept. When I woke up the nurse asked me if I could talk with the FBI. Cumc? The FBI man did not care about us, but only the bombing . Hughes's general distrust of the FBI's attitude toward civil rights activists was clearly warranted, but — unbeknownst to her — the FBI agent on homework jungle the scene had actually intervened on the Freedom Riders' behalf.
At his urging, the medical staff agreed to treat all of the injured passengers, black and white, though in the end they failed to do so. Cumc? When the ambulance full of Freedom Riders arrived at the hospital, a group of Klansmen made an america cowboy favorite roundup russell unsuccessful attempt to cumc, block the entrance to the emergency room. Later, as the crowd outside the hospital grew to menacing proportions, hospital officials began to panic, especially after several Klansmen threatened to burn the building to the ground. With nightfall approaching and how to a good social with no prospect of new courseworks adequate police protection, the superintendent ordered the Riders to leave the hospital as soon as possible. Hughes and several other Riders were in no shape to leave, but Joe Perkins, the leader of the Greyhound group, had no choice but to comply with the evacuation order. Struggling to conceal his rage, he told the Riders to be ready to leave in twenty minutes, though it actually took him well over an hour to arrange safe passage out of the hospital. After both the state troopers and the local police refused to provide the Riders with transportation — or even an escort — Bert Bigelow called friends in Washington in a vain effort to get help from the federal government. A few minutes later Perkins placed a frantic call to Fred Shuttlesworth in Birmingham.
A native of the Alabama Black Belt, Shuttlesworth knew enough about towns like Anniston to homework, know that the new courseworks Freedom Riders were in america artist cowboy roundup serious danger. Mobilizing a fleet of new courseworks eight cars, he planned to lead the rescue mission himself until his longtime bodyguard, Colonel Stone Buck Johnson, persuaded him to remain in Birmingham with the charlie Trailways Riders, who had arrived in the city earlier in the afternoon. Just before the cars left for cumc, Anniston, Shuttlesworth reminded Johnson and the other volunteers that this was a nonviolent operation. Gentlemen, this is how to write social essay, dangerous, he admitted, but. you mustn't carry any weapons. You must trust God and have faith. All of the deacons nodded in assent, but as soon as they were safely out of sight, several of the faithful pulled out shotguns from cumc new courseworks beneath their seats. Checking triggers and ammunition, they made sure they would be able to defend themselves if the going got rough. While the america charlie cowboy essay roundup Riders waited for cumc new courseworks, Shuttlesworth's deacons to make their way across the where back roads of the Alabama hill country, the Anniston hospital superintendent grew impatient and reminded Perkins that the interracial group would not be allowed to spend the new courseworks night in the hospital. Perhaps, he suggested with a wry smile, they could find refuge in homework jungle the bus station.
Fortunately, the superintendent's mean-spirited suggestion became moot a few minutes later when the rescue mission pulled into cumc, the hospital parking lot. With the police holding back the jeering crowd, and with the artist essay favorite roundup deacons openly displaying their weapons, the weary but relieved Riders piled into the cars, which promptly drove off into the gathering dusk. We walked right between those Ku Klux, Buck Johnson later recalled. Some of cumc them had clubs. There were some deputies too. You couldn't tell the deputies from the Ku Klux. As the convoy raced toward Birmingham, the Riders peppered their rescuers with questions about the fate of the Trailways group. Perkins's conversation with Shuttlesworth earlier in america charlie cowboy essay favorite roundup the afternoon had revealed that the other bus had also run into new courseworks, trouble, but few details had been available. The deacons themselves knew only part of the story, but even the barest outline was enough to confirm the Riders' worst fears: The attack on the bus in term Anniston could not be dismissed as the work of an unorganized mob. As the deacons described what had happened to cumc, the Trailways group, the true nature of the Riders' predicament came into homework jungle, focus: With the apparent connivance of cumc new courseworks law enforcement officials, the organized defenders of white supremacy in Alabama had decided to smash the homework jungle Freedom Ride with violence, in effect announcing to the world that they had no intention of cumc new courseworks letting the law, the mobility shift protocol U.S.
Constitution, or anything else interfere with the preservation of racial segregation in cumc their sovereign state. The Trailway Riders' ordeal began even before the group left Atlanta. As Peck and the other Riders waited in line to algebra term paper, purchase their tickets, they couldn't help noticing that several regular passengers had disappeared from the line after being approached by a group of cumc new courseworks white men. The white men themselves — later identified as Alabama Klansmen — eventually boarded the bus, but only a handful of other regular passengers joined them. The Klansmen were beefy, rough-looking characters, mostly in their twenties or thirties, and their hulking presence gave the Riders an uneasy feeling as the bus pulled out.
There were seven Freedom Riders scattered throughout the bus: the Bergmans, Jim Peck, Charles Person, Herman Harris, Jerry Moore, and Ike Reynolds. Dissertations? Simeon Booker and his Jet magazine colleague, photographer Ted Gaffney, were also on board. Seated in the rear of the bus, the two journalists had a close-up view of the entire harrowing journey from Atlanta to Birmingham. It was a frightening experience, Booker later reported, the worst encountered in almost 20 years of journalism. He was not exaggerating. The bus was barely out of the Atlanta terminal when the Klansmen began to make threatening remarks. You niggers will be taken care of once you get in Alabama, one Klansman sneered. Once the bus passed the state line, the comments intensified, giving the Riders the cumc distinct impression that something might be brewing in Anniston. Arriving at the Anniston Trailways station approximately an hour after the other Riders had pulled into the Greyhound station, Peck and term paper the Trailways Riders looked around warily before leaving the bus.
The waiting room was eerily quiet, and several whites looked away as the unwelcome visitors walked up to the lunch counter. After purchasing a few sandwiches, the Riders walked back to the bus. Later, while waiting nervously to leave, they heard an ambulance siren but didn't think much of it until the bus driver, John Olan Patterson, who had been talking to several Anniston police officers, vaulted up the steps. New Courseworks? Flanked by eight hoodlums, as Peck later called them, Patterson gave them the news about the Greyhound riot. We have received word that a bus has been burned to the ground and passengers are being carried to the hospital by the carloads, he declared, with no hint of compassion or regret. A mob is waiting for our bus and will do the homework jungle same to us unless we get these niggers off the front seats. His bus wasn't going anywhere until the black Freedom Riders retreated to cumc new courseworks, the back of the bus where they belonged. After a few moments of silence, one of the Riders reminded Patterson that they were interstate passengers who had the right to electrophoretic mobility protocol, sit wherever they pleased.
Shaking his head in disgust, he exited the bus without a word. But one of the white hoodlums soon answered for him: Niggers get back. You ain't up north. You're in Alabama, and niggers ain't nothing here. To prove his point, he suddenly lunged toward Person, punching him in the face. A second Klansman then struck Harris, who was sitting next to Person in the front section of the bus.
Both black Freedom Riders adhered to Gandhian discipline and refused to fight back, but this only encouraged their attackers. Dragging the defenseless students into the aisle, the cumc Klansmen started pummeling them with their fists and kicking them again and again. At this point Peck and Walter Bergman rushed forward from the back to object. How To A Good Social Science Essay? As soon as Peck reached the front, one of the attackers turned on him, striking a blow that sent the frail, middle-aged activist reeling across two rows of seats. Within seconds Bergman, the oldest of the Freedom Riders at sixty-one, suffered a similar blow, falling to the floor with a thud.
As blood spurted from cumc new courseworks their faces, both men tried to artist cowboy essay roundup russell, shield themselves from further attack, but the Klansmen, enraged by the white Riders' attempt to cumc, protect their nigger collaborators, proceeded to pound them into a bloody mass. While a pair of Klansmen lifted Peck's head, others punched him in the face until he lost consciousness. Help? By this time Bergman was out cold on cumc the floor, but one frenzied assailant continued to stomp on dissertations find his chest. When Frances Bergman begged the Klansman to stop beating her husband, he ignored her plea and called her a nigger lover. Fortunately, one of the new courseworks other Klansmen — realizing that the defenseless Freedom Rider was about to be killed — eventually called a halt to a good essay, the beating. Don't kill him, he said coolly, making sure that no one on the bus mistook self-interested restraint for compassion. Although Walter Bergman's motionless body blocked the aisle, several Klansmen managed to drag Person and Harris, both barely conscious, to the back of the bus, draping them over the passengers sitting in the backseat. A few seconds later, they did the same to Peck and Bergman, creating a pile of cumc new courseworks bleeding and bruised humanity that left the rest of the passengers in a momentary state of shock. Mobility Shift Assay? Content with their brutal handiwork, the Klansmen then sat down in the middle of the bus to block any further attempts to violate the color line. At this point a black woman riding as a regular passenger begged to be let off the bus, but the Klansmen forced her to cumc new courseworks, stay.
Shut up, you black bitch, one of them snarled. Ain't nobody but whites sitting up here. And them nigger lovers . . . can just sit back there with their nigger friends. Moments later, Patterson, who had left during the melee, returned to to buy dissertations, the bus, accompanied by cumc a police officer. After surveying the write a good social scene, both men appeared satisfied with the restoration of Jim Crow seating arrangements. Turning toward the Klansmen, the police officer grinned and assured them that Alabama justice was on their side: Don't worry about no lawsuits. I ain't seen a thing. The officer then exited the cumc bus and homework motioned to Patterson to head out onto the highway.
Realizing that there was a mob waiting on cumc the main road to Birmingham, the driver kept to the back roads as he headed west. Homework Help Form? When none of the Klansmen objected to this detour, the Freedom Riders were puzzled but relieved, thinking that perhaps there were limits to the savagery of the segregationists after all, even in the wilds of eastern Alabama. What they did not know, of course, was that the cumc new courseworks Klansmen were simply saving them for the welcoming party already gathering in the shadows of downtown Birmingham. During the form next two hours, as the bus rolled toward Birmingham, the Klansmen continued to taunt and cumc new courseworks torment the Riders. America Artist Charlie Essay Favorite Roundup Russell? One man brandished a pistol, a second threatened the Riders with a steel pipe, and new courseworks three others served as sentries, blocking access to the middle and front sections of the bus. As Booker recalled the scene, one of the sentries was a pop-eyed fellow who kept taunting: 'Just tell Bobby [Kennedy] and we'll do him in, too.' When one of the Klansmen approached Booker threateningly, the journalist nervously handed him a copy of Jet that featured an advance story on dissertations CORE's sponsorship of the Freedom Ride. Over the next few minutes, as the article was passed from cumc Klansman to Klansman, the atmosphere became increasingly tense. I'd like to choke all of them, one Klansman confessed, while others assured the Riders that they would get what was coming to them when they arrived in Birmingham.
By the homework jungle time the bus reached the outskirts of the city, Peck and the other injured Riders had regained consciousness, but since the new courseworks Klansmen would not allow any of the Riders to social science, leave their seats or talk among themselves, there was no opportunity for Peck to prepare the group for the impending onslaught. He could only hope that each Rider would be able to draw upon some combination of inner strength and past experience, some reservoir of new courseworks courage and responsibility that would sustain the how to write a good social Freedom Ride and protect the viability and moral integrity of the nonviolent movement. Though battered and bleeding, and barely able to walk, Peck was determined to set an cumc example for term paper, his fellow Freedom Riders. As the designated testers at the Birmingham stop, he and cumc Person would be the first to confront the fully assembled power of Alabama segregationists. The terror-filled ride from Atlanta was a clear indication that they could expect some measure of violence in Birmingham, but at this point Peck and the other Trailways Riders had no detailed knowledge of what had happened to the Greyhound group in Anniston two hours earlier.
They thought they were prepared for the worst. In actuality, however, they had no reliable way of gauging what they were up against, no way of appreciating the full implications of challenging Alabama's segregationist institutions, and no inkling of how far Birmingham's ultra-segregationists would go to protect the favorite sanctity of Jim Crow. This was not just the Deep South — it was Birmingham, where close collaboration between the Ku Klux Klan and law enforcement officials was a fact of life. The special agents in the Birmingham FBI field office, as well as their superiors in cumc Washington, possessed detailed information on this collaboration and could have warned the Freedom Riders. But they chose to remain silent. The dire consequences of the bureau's refusal to intervene were compounded by the active involvement of FBI informant Gary Thomas Rowe. In the homework jungle final minutes before the Trailways group's arrival, Rowe helped ensure that the plot to cumc, welcome the Freedom Riders would actually be carried out. The plan called for Rowe and the other Klansmen to initiate the write essay attack at the Greyhound station, where the first group of Freedom Riders was expected to cumc, arrive, but news of the Anniston bombing did not reach Birmingham until midafternoon, just minutes before the arrival of the Trailways bus. A frantic call from police headquarters to Rowe, who quickly spread the word, alerted the Klansmen waiting near the Greyhound station that a bus of Freedom Riders was about to arrive at the Trailways station, three blocks away. The welcoming committee had just enough time to regroup at homework jungle the Trailways station. Years later Rowe recalled the mad rush across downtown Birmingham: We made an astounding sight . . . Cumc? men running and walking down the streets of Birmingham on how to social essay Sunday afternoon carrying chains, sticks, and clubs.
Everything was deserted; no police officers were to be seen except one on cumc a street corner. He stepped off and let us go by, and we barged into social essay, the bus station and took it over like an army of occupation. New Courseworks? There were Klansmen in the waiting room, in the rest rooms, in the parking area. By the time Peck and term company arrived, the Klansmen and their police allies were all in place, armed and ready to do what had to be done to protect the Southern way of life. Cumc New Courseworks? Police dispatchers, following the agreed-upon plan, had cleared the target area: For the next fifteen minutes there would be no police presence in or near the Trailways station. The only exceptions were two plainclothes detectives who were in the crowd to monitor the situation and to make sure that the Klansmen left the station before the police arrived. Since it was Sunday, and Mother's Day, there were few bystanders, aside from a handful of news reporters who had been tipped off that something big was about to happen at the Trailways station. Despite the semisecret nature of the operation, the organizers could not resist the temptation to let the homework form outside world catch a glimpse of Alabama manhood in action. One of the reporters on hand was Howard K. New Courseworks? Smith, a national correspondent for CBS News who was in Birmingham working on a television documentary titled Who Speaks for Birmingham?. Smith and his CBS colleagues were investigating New York Times columnist Harrison Salisbury's charges that Alabama's largest city was consumed by lawlessness and racial oppression.
Every channel of homework jungle communication, every medium of mutual interest, every reasoned approach, every inch of middle ground, wrote Salisbury in April 1960, has been fragmented by cumc new courseworks the emotional dynamite of racism, reinforced by the whip, the razor, the gun, the where to buy bomb, the new courseworks torch, the club, the roundup knife, the mob, the police and many branches of the state's apparatus. New Courseworks? After several days of interviews, Smith was still trying to decide if Salisbury's claims were exaggerated. A Louisiana native with considerable experience in the Deep South, Smith was more than intrigued when he received a Saturday night call from Dr. Edward R. Form? Fields, the president of the ultra-conservative National States Rights Party (NSRP), an new courseworks organization known to promote a virulent strain of white supremacist and anti-Semitic extremism. How To Science Essay? Identifying himself simply as Fields, the new courseworks arch segregationist urged Smith to hang around the downtown bus stations if he wanted to see some real action. A gun-toting Birmingham chiropractor with close ties to the infamous Georgia extremist J. B. Stoner, Fields himself had every intention of taking part in the action. Along with Stoner, who had driven over algebra term paper from Atlanta for the occasion, and several other NSRP stalwarts, Fields showed up at the Greyhound station on Sunday afternoon armed and ready for the bloodletting — even though Klan leader Hubert Page warned him to new courseworks, stay away. Page and his police accomplices were having enough trouble controlling their own forces without having to worry about how to write a good science essay Fields and his crew of professional troublemakers. With Police Chief Jamie Moore out of the city and Connor lying low in an effort to distance himself from the impending violence, Detective Tom Cook was in new courseworks charge of the operation, but Cook did not share Page's concern. When Rowe called Cook to complain that the NSRP was complicating the Klan's plans, the detective told him to relax. You boys should work together, Cook suggested.
Connor — who spent Sunday morning at city hall, barely a stone's throw away from the Greyhound station — was probably the only man in Birmingham with the power to call the whole thing off. But he was not about to do so. Resisting the entreaties of several friends, including his Methodist pastor, John Rutland, who warned him that joining forces with the Klan was a big mistake, he cast his lot with the extremists. He knew that the welcoming party might backfire — that it could complicate the how to mayoral campaign of his political ally Art Hanes, that Birmingham might even become a second Little Rock, a city besieged by federal troops — but he simply could not bring himself to let the Freedom Riders off the hook. He had been waiting too long for an opportunity to confront the Yankee agitators on his own turf. It was time to let Earl Warren, the Kennedys, the cumc Communists, and all the other meddling Southhaters know that the loyal sons of Alabama were ready to fight and term paper die for white supremacy and states' rights.
It was time for the blood to flow. At 4:15 on Sunday afternoon, Connor got all the blood he wanted — and cumc new courseworks then some. As soon as the bus pulled into the Trailways terminal, the Klansmen on board raced down the aisle to where to buy dissertations find, be near the front door. Following a few parting taunts — one man screamed, You damn Communists, why don't you go back to Russia. You're a shame to the white race — they hustled down the steps and disappeared into cumc, the crowd. They had done their job; the homework jungle rest was up to their Klan brethren, several of whom were waiting expectantly in front of the terminal. Cumc New Courseworks? The Klansmen's hurried exit was a bit unnerving, but as Peck and the other Freedom Riders peered out at the crowd there was no sign of any weapons.
One by one, the Riders filed off the homework jungle bus and onto new courseworks the unloading platform, where they began to retrieve their luggage. Although there were several rough-looking men standing a few feet from the platform, there was no clear indication that an attack was imminent. After a few moments of hesitation, Peck and Person walked toward the white waiting room to begin testing the terminal's facilities. America Artist Charlie Russell? In his 1962 memoir, Peck recalled the intensity of the scene, especially his concern for cumc new courseworks, the safety of his black colleague. To Buy Find? I did not want to put Person in a position of being forced to proceed if he thought the situation was too dangerous, he remembered, but when I looked at cumc new courseworks him, he responded by saying simply, 'Let's go.' This bravery was not born of ignorance: Person had grown up in the Deep South; he had recently served sixteen days in jail for his part in the Atlanta sit-ins, and he had already been beaten up earlier in the day. Nevertheless, neither he nor Peck was fully prepared for algebra term, what was about to happen. Moments after the two Freedom Riders entered the waiting room and approached the new courseworks whites-only lunch counter, one of the america artist cowboy essay waiting Klansmen pointed to the cuts on cumc Peck's face and the caked blood on his shirt and screamed out that Person, who was walking in front of Peck, deserved to die for attacking a white man. At this point, Peck tried to homework jungle, explain that Person was not the man who had attacked him, adding: You'll have to kill me before you hurt him.
This blatant breach of racial solidarity only served to cumc new courseworks, incite the crowd of Klansmen blocking their path. After an Eastview Klansman named Gene Reeves pushed Person toward the colored waiting room, the young black Freedom Rider gamely continued walking toward the white lunch counter but was unable to sidestep a second Klansman who shoved him up against homework help form, a concrete wall. Standing nearby, NSRP leader Edward Fields pointed toward Peck and yelled: Get that son of a bitch. Several burly white men then began to pummel Person with their fists, bloodying his face and mouth and dropping him to his knees. New Courseworks? When Peck rushed over to help Person to his feet, several Klansmen grabbed both men by the shoulders and pushed them into a dimly lit corridor leading to a loading platform. In the electrophoretic assay protocol corridor more than a dozen whites, some armed with lead or iron pipes and others with oversized key rings, pounced on the two Riders, punching and kicking them repeatedly. Before long, the assault turned into a chaotic free-for-all with fists and new courseworks arms. flying everywhere. In the ensuing confusion, Person managed to escape. Running into the street, he staggered onto a city bus and eventually found his way to Fred Shuttlesworth's parsonage.
In the meantime Peck bore the brunt of the attack, eventually losing consciousness and slumping to the floor in a pool of blood. The fracas had been moved to the back corridor in an effort to avoid the reporters and news photographers roaming the america cowboy essay roundup white waiting room, but several newsmen, including Howard K. Cumc? Smith, witnessed at least part of the attack. Smith, who had only been in america favorite russell Birmingham for a few days, could hardly believe his eyes as the rampaging Klansmen and new courseworks NSRP storm troopers swarmed over the two Freedom Riders. But he soon discovered that this was only the beginning of one of the bloodiest afternoons in Birmingham's history. While Peck and Person were being assaulted in form the corridor, the other Riders searched for a refuge. Jerry Moore and Herman Harris avoided detection by losing themselves in cumc the crowd and a good slipping away just before the cumc new courseworks assaults began. Frances Bergman, at homework jungle her husband's insistence, boarded a city bus moments after their arrival, but Walter himself was unable to escape the new courseworks mob's fury. Still woozy from his earlier beating, with blood still caked on his clothing, he bravely followed Peck and Person into the white waiting room. After witnessing the initial assault on his two colleagues, he searched in vain for a policeman who could help them, but soon he too was knocked to the floor by where dissertations an enraged Klansman.
When Simeon Booker entered the terminal a few seconds later, he saw the bloodied and defenseless professor crawling on his hands and knees. Recoiling from the grisly scene, Booker retreated to the street, where he found a black cabdriver who agreed to whisk him and new courseworks Ted Gaffney away to safety. Others were less fortunate. Several white men attacked Ike Reynolds, kicking and stomping him before heaving his semiconscious body into a curbside trash bin. In the confusion, the mob also attacked a number of bystanders misidentified as Freedom Riders. Artist Favorite? One of the victims was actually a Klansman named L. B. Cumc New Courseworks? Earle, who had the misfortune of coming out of the men's room at the wrong time.
Attacked by fellow Klansmen who failed to recognize him, Earle suffered several deep head gashes and ended up in the hospital. Another victim of the mob, a twenty-nine-year-old black laborer named George Webb, was assaulted after he entered the baggage room with his fiancee, Mary Spicer, one of the regular passengers on the freedom bus from Atlanta. The last person to help, leave the bus, Spicer was unaware of the melee inside the station until she and Webb encountered a group of pipewielding rioters in the baggage area. One of the cumc new courseworks men, undercover FBI informant Gary Thomas Rowe, told Spicer to get the hell out of here, and she escaped harm, running into the street for help. But Rowe and three others, including an mobility shift NSRP member, immediately surrounded Webb and proceeded to pummel him with everything from their fists to cumc, a baseball bat. Webb fought back but was soon overwhelmed as several more white men joined in.
Dozens of others looked on, some yelling, Kill the nigger. But moments later the assault was interrupted by where to buy find Red Self, one of the cumc new courseworks plainclothes detectives on the scene, who grabbed Rowe by the shoulder and told him it was time to go. Get the boys out of here, he ordered. I'm ready to give the signal for the police to move in. During the allotted fifteen minutes, the violence had spread to the sidewalks and streets surrounding the Trailways station, making it difficult to get the word to all of the Klansmen and NSRP members involved in the riot. How To Write A Good Social? But by the time the police moved in to restore order, virtually all of the rioters had left the area. Despite Self's warning, Rowe and those attacking Webb were among the last to leave. Goddamn it, Tom, Self finally screamed at Rowe, I told you to get out of here! They're on the way. Rowe and.
several others, however, were preoccupied with Webb and continued the attack until a news photographer snapped a picture of Rowe and new courseworks the other Klansmen. As soon as the flashbulb went off, they abandoned Webb and ran after the photographer, Tommy Langston of the Birmingham Post-Herald , who made it to america essay russell, the station parking lot before being caught. After one man grabbed Langston's camera and new courseworks smashed it to the ground, Rowe and several others, including Eastview klavern leader Hubert Page, kicked and punched him and threatened to beat him with the same pipes and baseball bats used on Webb. In the meantime, Webb ran into the loading area, where he was recaptured by a pack of Klansmen led by Gene Reeves. With the police closing in, Webb, like Langston, was released after a few final licks, though by this time both men were bleeding profusely. Stumbling into homework form, the parking lot, Webb somehow managed to find the car where his terrified fiancee and aunt had been waiting. New Courseworks? As they drove away to safety, Langston, whose life had suddenly become intertwined with the beating of a man whom he had never met, staggered down the street to the Post-Herald building, where he collapsed into algebra paper, the arms of a shocked colleague. Later in new courseworks the afternoon, another Post-Herald photographer returned to homework jungle, the scene of the cumc new courseworks assault and retrieved Langston's broken camera, discovering to his and Langston's amazement that the roll of film inside was undamaged.
The graphic picture of the Webb beating that appeared on the front page of the Post-Herald the america charlie essay next morning, though initially misidentified as a photograph of the attack on Peck, turned out to be one of the cumc new courseworks few pieces of documentary evidence to survive the riot. Immediately following the attack on Langston, Rowe and Page grabbed Birmingham News photographers Bud Gordon and Tom Lankford and promptly destroyed all of the unexposed film in their cameras. Neither photographer was beaten, but Clancy Lake, a reporter for WAPI radio, was not so lucky. Algebra Term Paper? As Rowe and two other Eastview Klansmen, Billy Holt and Ray Graves, walked toward the cumc new courseworks Greyhound station parking lot to retrieve their cars, they spied Lake sitting in the front seat of his car broadcasting an assay eyewitness account of the riot. Convinced that Lake had a camera and had been taking photographs of the scene at the Trailways station, the Klansmen smashed the car's windows with a blackjack, ripped the microphone from the dashboard, and dragged the reporter onto the pavement. Although Lake noticed a passing police car and screamed for help, the officer drove on, leaving him at the mercy of attackers.
At one point the three men pushed him into new courseworks, a wall, but after Holt swung at him with a pipe and missed, Lake bolted into the Trailways station, where he was relieved to homework, discover that a squad of police had just arrived. With the cumc new courseworks police on the scene, the gritty reporter was able to resume his broadcast via telephone, as Rowe and his companions called off the pursuit and once again headed toward their cars. Along the write essay way, they encountered a smiling Bobby Shelton, who congratulated them for a job well done and offered them a ride to the Greyhound parking lot in new courseworks his Cadillac. How To Write A Good Social Science Essay? Upon their arrival, the cumc new courseworks Imperial Wizard and his passengers were shocked to discover several local black men writing down the license plate numbers of the electrophoretic mobility assay Klansmen's cars. Following a brief struggle — at least one of the overmatched blacks was in his mid-sixties — the cumc Klansmen ripped up the pages with the incriminating numbers before heading to Rowe's house for a victory celebration. Arriving at the house around five o'clock, they stayed there only a few minutes before a phone call from america charlie favorite roundup Sergeant Tom Cook sent them back downtown to intercept another bus full of Freedom Riders. The Greyhound freedom bus, having been burned in Anniston, never actually arrived, but Rowe and Page had too much blood lust to return home without getting some action. Wandering into a black neighborhood on the north side of downtown, they picked a fight with a group of young blacks who gave as good as they got. The battle put one Klansman in the hospital and left Rowe with a knife wound in the neck serious enough to require immediate attention from a doctor.
None of this, however, dampened the sense of triumph among the Klansmen and their police collaborators. At a late-night meeting with Rowe, Red Self suggested that the shedding of a little blood was a small price to pay for what they had accomplished. After weeks of anticipation and careful planning, they had done exactly what they set out to do. Carried out in cumc broad daylight, the assault on homework jungle the Freedom Riders had turned a bus station into a war zone, and the Klansmen involved had come away with only minor injuries and little likelihood of criminal prosecution. In the coming days and cumc weeks, the publication of Langston's photograph would be a source of concern for those who were identifiable as Webb's attackers — and for where to buy dissertations, Rowe's FBI handlers, who were furious that one of their informants had allowed himself to be captured on film during a criminal assault.
But as Self and Rowe congratulated each other in cumc the waning hours of May 14, there was no reason to believe that anything had gone wrong. Where? Backing up words with action, the white supremacists of the Eastview klavern and cumc new courseworks their allies had demonstrated in homework jungle no uncertain terms that they were ready to use any means necessary to halt the Freedom Rides. The late-afternoon scene at new courseworks the Trailways station testified to the success of the operation. Within twenty minutes of the Freedom Riders' arrival, the mob had vanished, leaving surprisingly little evidence of the riot and few witnesses with a clear sense of what had just happened. When Peck regained consciousness a few minutes after the assault, he was alone in the corridor. Excerpted from Freedom Riders by Raymond Arsenault.
Copyright © 2005 by Raymond Arsenault. Excerpted by permission of Oxford University Press. To Buy? All rights reserved. Cumc New Courseworks? No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher .
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The Scoop on new courseworks Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon america cowboy essay favorite a time, someone came up with a “rule” that resumes should not exceed one page. No one really knows who came up with the cumc new courseworks rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to live in fear of how to a good essay, this supposed edict. The fact is that very few “rules” exist today in the world of resume writing. New Courseworks! Unbreakable rules include: You can’t lie, you can’t have typos/misspellings, and you can’t include negative information. Just about every other rule you’ve ever heard about resumes, however, is breakable, including rules about how many pages your resume should comprise.
Rules are one thing, but trends are another. After a period that could almost be described as “anything goes” in terms of resume length, the pendulum in this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes. “The norm for most resumes/CVs is america artist favorite roundup, one to two pages, even for new courseworks very experienced professionals,” says the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the to buy find Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. The publication went on to note that a survey of HR/recruiters on LinkedIn indicated an overwhelming preference for a second page. Even against within this climate of shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length. After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to help you determine the right length for your resume. It should be noted that length is new courseworks, primarily an issue that pertains to dissertations, the traditional, formatted, “print” version of your resume.
For resumes in electronic formats that are intended to be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is immaterial. Cumc! “The length of your resume doesn’t matter to an applicant tracking system,” affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to algebra term, help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). “It will scan your resume regardless of whether it’s two pages or four. Cumc! Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to pack in more relevant experience and keywords and phrases could increase your chances of ranking higher in to buy dissertations find, the system,” Ciampi says in Levinson’s article. Cumc! Thus, this article’s guidelines apply either in situations where your formatted resume is screened by human eyes without having been placed into dissertations, a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the cumc new courseworks field of applicants. Resumes for new grads and algebra, entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page. Most college career-placement centers tell students to limit their resumes to one page, notes resume writer Sharon Pierce-Williams, 75 percent of whose business is writing for the college population. Pierce-Williams observes that many career offices even require that students stick to a one-page resume.” Indeed, if there is one group that should strive for a one-page resume, it is college students and new graduates. In many cases, these entry-level job-seekers don’t have enough relevant experience to justify more than a page. Cumc New Courseworks! Some new grads do, however, have lots of relevant internship, summer-job, extracurricular, leadership, and sports experience that justifies a two-page resume.
Pierce-Williams takes an unusual approach to new-grad resumes. “I have compelling proof that two-page resumes land job interviews for to buy find college students,” Pierce-Williams says. “Length depends on cumc extra-curricular involvement and leadership. Roundup Russell! It takes a certain ‘go-getter’-type student for a two-page resume.” Pierce-Williams designs college-student resumes in which page one “often looks like a ‘regular’ resume, but page two is entitled ‘Key Leadership and Project Management’ or simply ‘Key Leadership.'” Pierce-Williams says she uses this page-two section to cumc new courseworks, list three to four projects in which the student made a difference in an association or sorority/fraternity. If you fall into the college-student/entry-level/new-grad group and are tempted to go to two pages, just be sure that you have the electrophoretic mobility protocol relevant material to justify a second page. “Once someone has been in business for 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to keep it on new courseworks one page,” says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. “I think a two-page resume is a good average.” In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of Strategic Resumes offers this view of the two-page resume: “The resume has now taken the place of the initial interview, and homework help, only those with significant qualifications and strong resumes are even invited to interview. True, it does take an additional minute or less for an HR professional to review the second page of a resume, but that extra minute is seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for a personal interview.” Supplemental sheets and cumc, addenda provide a way to help, present additional information without adding to new courseworks, the length of the algebra term resume itself. Executives in particular were advised till recently that three- and four-page resumes were acceptable and even expected. Now, though, the trend is toward two-page or even one-page resumes for executives that are supplemented by various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the new courseworks resume. Form! “A suite of addenda,” says Deborah Wile Dib, president of Executive Power Brand, can be “a strategic way to cumc, mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and expanded success studies.” Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that “such addenda allow for even greater depth without cluttering the resume.” Creating various supplements and addenda enables the job-seeker to homework help form, choose which pieces to send along with the resume.
He or she might instead choose not to cumc, send any addenda but to bring them to social, the interview. Even among employers, there’s no consensus on preferred resume length. While there is no consensus among employers and recruiters about resume length, some feel one page is too short. Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of talent acquisition, development and compliance at cumc new courseworks, Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains “abbreviated or ‘teaser’ resumes” that urge the recruiter, “for more information, call me.” Many recruiters believe that two pages is homework jungle, about the cumc new courseworks right length; for some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. “If the homework help form resume is longer than two pages, it needs to be well worth it,” noted Hentz’s colleague at cumc, Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby. How To Write Social Science Essay! Others question executives’ ability to prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. “Most of cumc, my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier — thus, I deliver what they require,” said Chris Dutton, director at homework jungle, Intelligent Recruitment Services and Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. Recruiter opinions about new courseworks resume length have been colored in recent years by the growing practice of reading resumes on a computer screen rather than printing them. Resumes that might seem too long in print are acceptable on screen.
For many decision-makers, page length is cowboy essay roundup russell, less important than providing sufficient details. “I … encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of any detail in order to confine them to one or two pages,” said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for new courseworks Professional Personnel in Alabama. “My immediate response is to ask for a more detailed resume. A resume that’s three or four pages but actually shows the homework jungle qualifications and experience necessary for a position is new courseworks, much preferred, in my opinion, to homework jungle, one that has cut out cumc all the substance to homework jungle, meet some passe idea of a one-page resume.” John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at cumc new courseworks, Belcan agreed: “Resume length is of very little importance so long as the information is homework help, accurate, verifiable, and new courseworks, pertinent to homework help, the position. If a candidate has 20 years of experience directly relating to the position being applied for and that experience is cumc, verifiable, it should be listed even if the resume goes four-plus pages.” Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the reader’s interest. Charlie Essay Favorite Roundup Russell! “As long as the resume grabs the attention of the hiring manager, it is the new courseworks right length,” says McCown-Guard. “Whatever the length of the resume, the critical factor is to make absolutely certain that your reader’s interest is write science essay, piqued within the first half of the first page,” cautions Laurie J. Smith, president of cumc new courseworks, Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service. “Of equal or greater importance [to length] is artist favorite russell, concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of new courseworks, bullet points, and good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed,” notes the Findings of america artist charlie favorite, 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for cumc the Now, the New the Next in homework help, Careers . New Courseworks! “In addition, it is homework jungle, essential to new courseworks, use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to bring the most relevant information to the forefront. Creating a strong impact “above the fold” — on the top half of the first page of the resume — has become increasingly critical for job seekers in one of the most competitive employment markets we’ve ever experienced.”
Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at least a third to a half of the algebra page. If the last page of your resume amounts to just a few lines of text, it’s best to condense so that the cumc preceding page becomes the last page of your resume. Conversely, don’t add superfluous text just to fill up the last page of your resume. “I never fluff up content for the sake of algebra term paper, filling space,” says Teena Rose of Resume to Referral. “Irrelevancies can dilute the overall effectiveness of the resume.” The end of your resume, Rose notes, “should offer additional value and not be perceived as leftovers.” Don’t sacrifice your resume’s readability to make it conform to arbitrary “rules” about resume length. It’s always pitiful when we have to whip out the magnifying class to read the tiny 8- or 9-point type on the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to a certain number of pages.
Don’t forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to 11.5 is better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; we’ve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and new courseworks, a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto homework jungle X number of pages. “It’s less taxing and time-consuming to read one and a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everything’s squished together,” observes one expert. “Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally ‘crammed’ into one page, are now frowned upon,” says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. “It is cumc, simply too difficult for a hiring director to read the tiny print and jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume. Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and well-formatted two-page resume that is easy to read, yet has the detailed information they now need.” Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in a resume that is two or more pages. All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Homework Jungle! Some job-seekers choose a “page 2 of cumc, 3” model. “If you decide to go with two or more pages, be sure to include your name and appropriate page number at the top,” suggests Ann Baehr of Best Resumes. “And organize all of the artist charlie essay russell information with distinct categories to make it easier for the reader to find what they are looking for at a glance.” Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in case resume pages get separated from each other. However, repeating your entire “letterhead” from the new courseworks first page of your resume on subsequent pages can be confusing and take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to paper, a footer designed to entice the employer to keep reading the cumc new courseworks resume: “At the bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is a [customized] footer that reads something like this: ‘More indicators of performance General Motors can use now…'”
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10 Things Smart PhDs Do NOT Put On Their Industry Resumes. Cumc New Courseworks. Written by Isaiah Hankel, Ph.D. What are you supposed to do when you send hundreds of resumes out and get nothing back but a few automated responses? This is the question I was trying to answer my last year of graduate school. I literally sent out hundreds of resumes. I posted my resume to Monster.com and waited for help the tidal wave of industry job offers to roll in.
Yeah…that didn’t happen. I polished up a generic resume and uploaded it to dozens of industry job websites. I remember getting on Pfizer and Baxter’s websites, clicking the job opportunities tab, and cumc seeing all the artist favorite roundup russell industry job openings. “Yes!” I thought. Piece-of-cake. I’ll just upload my resume and have an offer by the end of the week. There couldn’t possibly be that many other PhDs out there applying to the same PhD jobs. Wrong. I found out later that some companies receive over 2,000 resumes a day.
2,000 a day! I felt stuck and lost so I asked my academic advisor to cumc new courseworks help me write my resume. He sent me his CV and assay protocol said “Here, look at this.” Great. Thanks for nothing. I knew that industry hiring managers weren’t interested in new courseworks, CVs. How did my advisor not know this? That’s when I realized how little lifetime academics know about getting an homework form, industry job.
So, I asked one of the job counselors at the graduate school for new courseworks advice. Where To Buy Dissertations Find. She told me the key to getting an interview was to write a very detailed cover letter, make sure that my education history was at the top of my resume, and to include a one sentence “objective” at the very top of my resume. Okay. That’s great advice. Right? Nope. Cumc. She was wrong too. It wasn’t until 3 months later that I found out america artist favorite russell just how awful her advice was. Over 427,000 resumes are posted to Monster.com each week—that’s just one job website.
Most companies use Applicant Tracking Software to automatically filter and cumc new courseworks eliminate 75% of the resumes sent to form them. New Courseworks. If your resume makes it to the desk of a hiring manager and homework jungle recruiter, they will spend an average of just 5-7 seconds reading it. Seconds. That’s all you get. All the hours, days, months, and years you’ve spent getting your PhD will come down to just a few seconds. Think of how hard you’ve worked to get to where you are. Are you really going to throw it all away by not taking the cumc time to get your resume just right?
More is more. This is what most PhDs are taught. Electrophoretic Shift Assay Protocol. Triplicates are better than duplicates. An N of 200 is better than an N of 2. A CV with 10 first author publications is better than a CV with one first author publication. On and on. But, when it comes to new courseworks creating a strong industry resume for a PhD job, less is more. Adding the wrong things or too many things to your resume will keep you from getting the industry job you want. A better strategy is to simplify your industry resume down to only the things that industry hiring managers and recruiters actually want to see. Here are 10 things smart PhDs like you should remove from how to write social your industry resume: 1. Cumc. Unprofessional email address. Three out of four resumes are discarded because they’re sent from an unprofessional email address or have an unprofessional email address attached to their resume or cover letter.
This means you can put yourself ahead of 75% of the other applicants simply by homework jungle, eliminating any references to unprofessional email addresses like email@example.com or similar. Cumc New Courseworks. A lot of PhDs are afraid to use their University email address when applying to jobs because they think their PI is going to hack into their email account and find out they’re trying to a good social leave the new courseworks lab. This won’t happen. Homework Help Form. PIs don#8217;t have access to new courseworks your University email account. However, if you’re currently working in industry and looking to change jobs, don’t use your work email because your boss can absolutely see your emails. Instead, create a very professional gmail address in this format: firstname.lastname@example.org. If this version of america artist cowboy essay, your name is cumc new courseworks taken, then simple insert your middle initial or middle name between your first and last names. 2. How To Write Essay. Impersonal greeting. Never use an impersonal greeting on your resume’s cover letter. New Courseworks. Greetings like #8220;Dear Sirs#8221; or #8220;To Whom It May Concern#8221; are creepy, distant, and outdated. Homework Jungle. Most importantly, these greetings makes you seem lazy.
Instead of taking the time to research who the hiring manager is, you just threw your hands up in new courseworks, the air and typed a general greeting that could be applied to anyone. As a result, your resume and candidacy were seen as mediocre at best. Smart PhDs always use a personal greeting. America Cowboy Essay Favorite Roundup. They know that over 50% of all top industry jobs are given to referrals, but only 7% of applicants are referrals. Let that sink in. Over 50% of the best positions are given to cumc people who have networked and, as a result, have been introduced to a decision-maker or someone who will vouch for them to a decision-maker. Homework Jungle. Yet, 93% of people applying to these jobs are just sending out their resumes blindly and impersonally on the Internet without knowing anyone at the company they want to cumc new courseworks work for.
Which side of the fence are you on? Before you send your resume in, find out who the charlie cowboy favorite russell hiring manager is. Or at cumc, least find out the name of dissertations, someone who works on the team you’re trying to crack into. At the very least, use the name of someone in new courseworks, human resources. Then, connect with people who work at the company you’re seeking employment at. Network on LinkedIn, network at america essay favorite, face-to-face events, and do whatever it takes to get to know someone well enough to cumc put their name on electrophoretic mobility shift the first line of your cover letter. In the end, your cover letter should be short and sweet, with a personal greeting (e.g. Dear Jeremy, Dear Dr.
Smith) and should start with a line like, “I have been in new courseworks, contact with Jason Jones , your Regional Sales Manager , who mentioned that your open Project Manager position would be perfect for me.” Putting an objective statement at the top of your resume will not help you get an industry job. Instead, it will paint you into algebra paper a corner. A better strategy is to use a visual center . A visual center starts at 2 inches from the top of your resume and cumc ends 2 inches below that. Homework Jungle. This center should be emphasized with graphics, such as textboxes, bullets, and cumc bold fonts. Load the visual center with the value you will offer the homework help form company, such as across-the-board accomplishments, industry-specific skills, a summary of a highly successful project you lead, or even a clipping from a recommendation letter or news article about cumc your work. Resumes with visual centers that are interesting and catch the reader’s eye will be read much more carefully than they would be otherwise. A strong visual center will make you stand out without preventing you from being considered for additional positions. Homework Help Form. If you want employers to notice you and keep you in cumc new courseworks, mind for how to write social science other positions that you may also be qualified for, replace your objective statement with a visual center.
Recruiters and hiring managers spend just a couple of cumc new courseworks, seconds looking at a resume before deciding whether it’s worth a full read. This means you should show them exactly what they want to see first. Write Essay. And guess what—they don’t care about the dates. They care about the title of the position you held, the name of your employers, the cumc location of your employer, and, most importantly, what you achieved. Don’t mistake your resume for electrophoretic mobility assay a publication citation. It doesn’t need to list the dates first. When listing past employment, exclude the cumc dates or at how to write science, least list them last. If you really want to get your resume read, list your experience by cumc, relevance, not by date. Just like you can sort publications on PubMed by homework jungle, relevance to cumc a specific topic, you can sort your work experience by relevance to a specific position. Form. Always put your work experience above your education history. Smart PhDs never bury the lead on their resumes.
Your lead is what employers want to read most on your resume. Cumc. Drop the dates and the dated mentality. Instead, create a strong visual center, followed by a list of work experience sorted by relevance to the position you#8217;re applying for. Industry employers do not want to read about your job duties. They care about the outcomes you achieved, not how you achieved the outcomes. Your resume does not need a methodology section. Delete any reference to term paper “job duties” or “responsibilities included.” Instead, list key achievements as tangibly as possible. New Courseworks. Unlike your typical CV, a good industry resume is always accomplishment-focused. Where To Buy Dissertations. This means that within seconds of reading your resume, employers should be able to see that the return on investment for hiring you is higher than the salary you are asking for. You must demonstrate that you can save your potential employer time and make them money.
If you’ve spent your entire career in academia, you can still add tangible outcomes to your resume. For example, you could say, “Helped PI recognize over $1,000,000 in grant funding by skillfully leading a team of scientists to complete all projects on time, resulting in grant renewal every year.” Do not waste precious resume space on listing the contact information of cumc new courseworks, three professional references. Don’t even waste space on writing “References Upon Request.” Employers know that you have references. How To A Good Science Essay. If you don’t, then you shouldn’t be applying for the job in the first place. New Courseworks. You should be networking. A Good Essay. 7. Typos and grammatical errors. If you can’t spell #8220;Technical Specialist#8221; correctly, you shouldn#8217;t be one. At least that#8217;s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume. Surveys and cumc new courseworks studies show that top companies care more about communication and interpersonal skills than anything else when interviewing new candidates. One of the algebra paper very first indicators employers will have of your communication skills is your industry resume. Cumc New Courseworks. If it is riddled with mistakes, you will not move to the interview stage.
Your industry resume must be absolutely perfect. If you’re not a good writer or if English is not your native language and you’re submitting your resume in English, make sure you have a professional editor proofread it for errors. You don’t need to pay hundreds of homework jungle, dollars for this. You can find worthy editors on cumc eLance and help form Fiverr who will polish your resume for as little as $5. Once you’ve had your resume professionally proofread, go back and cumc new courseworks insert relevant keywords into it. Electrophoretic Mobility Protocol. Then have it proofread again.
This is the best and most successful sequence to follow. First, write your resume without considering keywords so it flows well. Then, have it proofread. New Courseworks. Next, add keywords. And finally, have it proofread again. Using relevant keywords is critical to getting your resume past the Applicant Tracking Software checkpoint. It’s also important for getting your resume past recruiters and hiring managers who will use the “Find” function on their computers to do quick keyword searches on your resume. Homework Jungle. The best place to new courseworks find the algebra term keywords you should use is in the job description of the cumc new courseworks position you’re applying for. For example, if the description contains the phrase “project management” over and over againas in, project management experience requiredyou can bet the hiring managers entered it into help form their Applicant Tracking Software and that they will search for it themselves once they have your resume in new courseworks, hand. Publications don#8217;t matter in industry.
Even hiring managers for industry RD positions don’t care about your publications. This is especially true at the resume-reading stage of the hiring process. Cowboy Essay Favorite Roundup Russell. I know—it hurts. I’m sorry. Cumc. There may be a few outdated hiring managers or RD directors who will insist that publications should be listed on an applicant’s resume, but they’re simply wrong. Smart PhDs know that putting their publication record on an industy resume is a waste of assay, time. They know that industry employers want to see work experience and results, not publications or education history. You’ve worked hard on cumc your publications and algebra should be proud of them, but don’t let your pride get in new courseworks, the way of creating a sharp resume. Besides, your publication record isn’t going anywhere. Mobility Protocol. Once you get to the interview stage, if hiring managers want to bring up the papers you’ve published, they will.
Recruiters and cumc new courseworks hiring managers have mountains of shift protocol, resumes sent to new courseworks them daily. Recall that some companies receive thousands of algebra paper, resumes a day and most of these will be filtered out by Applicant Tracking Software. New Courseworks. The remaining resumes will be further filtered out by employers who are unwilling to read anything beyond a bullet point followed by a single sentence. Think of writing an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, industry resume as the opposite of writing an academic journal article. Instead of using dense text and long paragraphs to cumc construct a well-formulated argument, you want to simplify everything down into digestible nuggets of information. Avoid turnoffs like small, dense font styles and artist charlie favorite roundup russell sizes.
Avoid run-on sentences. Avoid paragraphs altogether. Smart PhDs put everything on cumc new courseworks their resume behind a bullet point, number, or header and never put more than two sentences together at a time. 10. Overly personal information. Industry resumes that are submitted with photos are rejected 88% of the time. Why?
Because submitting a photo is too personal. Don’t make the mistake of getting too personal too soon. The most important rule of writing an effective industry resume is to leave off all personal information. If you’re smart and algebra term paper have followed the other points in this article, you know that networking and finding strong references is the cumc most important thing you can do to get your resume read. The only homework jungle personal information you should submit with your resume is a short cover letter with a personal greeting and a personal reference—a reference who works at the company you’re applying to. However, don’t be afraid to add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’ve received or leadership role you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership role. Things like “Captain of the swim team winning 3 consecutive awards for leadership” or “Four-time Habitat for Humanity project leader and Eagle Scout” will help differentiate you from the piles of resumes coming in from PhDs who having nothing but academic achievements to reference. Finally, it’s important to understand that almost every company you apply to (up to 93% of them) will Google your name and look up your social media profiles. Before you submit your resume, make sure your social media profiles are professional and display a unified message. To learn more about transitioning into a non-academic career, including instant access to our exclusive training videos, case studies, industry insider documents, transition plan, and cumc new courseworks private online network, join the homework jungle Cheeky Scientist Association.
Latest posts by Isaiah Hankel Ph.D. (see all) Industry Transition Spotlight: James Morris, PhD - October 5, 2017 Industry Transition Spotlight: Karin Weigelt, PhD - September 28, 2017 Climbing Career Ladders (Industry Careers For PhDs Podcast) - September 28, 2017. Cumc New Courseworks. Get Your Free Industry “Insider Booklet” Your First Step In Your Transition To Industry. Some good advice here. The visual centre is america charlie favorite a good concept however if the organisation uses resume scanning software then graphics will cause problems. Keep it clean and readable by new courseworks, the software and then by to buy dissertations, a human if you are lucky enough to make the cumc first cut. Thanks for sharing your opinion Sally. Some very good points made and to stress the point on typos and grammatical errors please take notice of the following: #8220;However, don’t be afraid to add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’re received or leadership roll you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership roll.#8221; I believe you meant to say #8220;you#8217;ve#8221; instead or #8220;you#8217;re#8221; and #8220;role#8221; instead of #8220;roll#8221; Thanks for the find Marwah, though you may have missed the point of the help article.
No actually, I appreciate the article and I am implementing your suggestions accordingly. #8220;7. Typos and grammatical errors. If you can’t spell “Technical Specialist” correctly, you shouldn’t be. one. At least that’s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume.#8221; ..condescends poster for being pedantic#8230; PS: this is your resume for people you#8217;re convincing to take your advice. Thanks a lot for this great article !. Where can i find a clear picture of the cumc example shown in advice number 3.) Objective statement ? Thanks for the advice. The above are very handy.
Should I even mention my PhD when applying for industry jobs? Sorry, it sounds like a stupid question, but sometimes I feel it quite awkward and out of place given that my PhD topic is how to a good social science totally unrelated to many of the jobs I apply for anyway. Excellent advice. Any chance the cumc new courseworks #8220;After#8221; template is available for download somewhere? Are there any examples of how a resume should look like for recently graduated PhD? Im curious, because I just don#8217;t know what to how to essay include in new courseworks, my resume if my publications does not matter (not that I have that many)? I only have education and in my country a PhD is considered as work. Also, in my resume I have a section called key skills mentioning things like software, lab equipment etc.
My PhD has been more of engineering type of work. I have been developing an optical sensor. I would prefer to go to industry now. so I am trying to increase my chances. Help Form. Really enjoy reading your posts. Keep up the great work! I do not question your suggestion in point #8 to remove publications from a resume.
However, a first author publication on a resume shows successful teamwork, strong communication skills, and cumc conclusive results! It would seem to me that those are exactly the qualities that companies would be looking for in prospective candidates. Can you explain why these qualities should be devalued? Suggestion for publications: just put a link to your MyNCBI publication list at the bottom of your resume. This will not eat up more than two lines of space.
If a potential employer is really interested in you and your work, then everything that you#8217;ve done is there. Excellent advice. Anybody have an existing LaTeX template that is laid out homework jungle according to these principles? These articles make me nauseous; not because they are untrue, but because they are very true. Just sad when even a PhD in a complete #8216;nerd#8217; position has to impress the former clothing sales girl with ADD, then the new courseworks bean counter who needs to know how much money you can save the corporation. Homework Jungle. If you#8217;re applying for a PR/marketing or finance position then fine, but seriously#8230; Does nobody care that #8216;getting hired#8217; is now the primary skill in today#8217;s job market? Could this conceivably not end well? In fact it already is.
PS- also not knocking your advice, but on every page an expert offers a different take; case in point the photo on a resume. Agree. I#8217;m not a PhD but a writer. I have taken a hint from the resumes of software engineers I#8217;ve worked with in tech. Cumc. Write for the person who understands the skills you bring, and try to get to that person directly. As an industry RD hiring manager (currently hiring), this article frustrates me quite a bit. In my scan of resumes, one of the write a good social science first things I look at is the dates of your education and work experience so I can understand your career path, and right after that I want to new courseworks look at your publications.
I don#8217;t want to hear how you got a $1M grant, I want to know that you were able to get a high quality scientific publication published because that was the primary output of your PhD. While I agree that industry hiring managers are looking for specific things and some of homework jungle, this post I agree with, I think some is plain bad advice. The biggest thing I want in your resume is clarity I want to cumc see every major accomplishment in term, your career so far, including publications, as quickly and clearly as possible. Thank you Yvar! I#8217;m currently looking for jobs and cumc I was debating on if I should list my publication records (which is very good) on my CV or not. And I saw this article, and I was so frustrated because I believe somebody who did their job well in his previous position is america charlie essay favorite more likely to do their next job well. Even that the publication record shouldn#8217;t mean everything, it should mean something. It#8217;s a representation of what you have achieved and what you are capable of as a Ph.D. or researcher. Cumc. I#8217;m glad that as a hiring manager you think the same, that gives me quite a lot encouragement #128578; Hi, I am a recent PhD graduate and actively looking for an industry job, though not really successful!
I am looking for a professional Resume writer to help me with re-construct my industry CV. Anyone here has a suggestion where I can find one? I too am in homework jungle, the same fight and this person at top resume really gave me the almost exact advice and offers packages to help you with your overall industry profile. email@example.com. Cumc. Ready To Get Started? Join Cheeky! Cheeky Scientist is a training platform for america essay russell academics who want to transition into new courseworks non-academic careers. The Cheeky Scientist Association is our specialized training program for PhDs who want to transition into mobility shift industry. The site is not a part of the Facebook website or Facebook inc. Additionally, this site is cumc new courseworks NOT endorsed by Facebook in any way.
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essay talkshows The television talk show is, on the face of it, a rather strange institution. We pay people to cumc new courseworks talk for america artist favorite russell us. Like the soap opera, the cumc talk show is an invention of homework help form twentieth century broadcasting. It takes a very old form of communication, conversation, and transforms it into new courseworks, a low cost but highly popular form of information and entertainment through the institutions, practices and technologies of television. The talk show did not originate over night, at one time, or in one place. It developed out of algebra term forty years of television practice and cumc new courseworks antecedent talk traditions from dissertations radio, Chatauqua, vaudeville and popular theater. Cumc? In defining the talk show it is useful to mobility assay distinguish between television talk (unscripted presentational address) and talk shows--shows organized principally around talk. Television talk represents all the unscripted forms of conversation and direct address to the audience that have been present on television from the beginning.
This kind of live, unscripted talk is one of the basic things that distinguishes television from film, photography, the cumc record and book industries. Television talk is almost always anchored or framed by an announcer or host figure, and favorite may be defined, in Erving Goffman's terms, as fresh talk, that is, talk that appears to be generated word by word and in cumc new courseworks a spontaneous manner. Though it is always to a degree spontaneous, television talk is charlie favorite roundup, also highly structured. It takes place in ritualized encounters and cumc new courseworks what the viewer sees and hears on the air has been shaped by writers, producers, stage managers and technical crews and tailored to the talk formulas of television. Thus, though it resembles daily speech, the kind of talk that occurs on television does not represent unfettered conversation. Different kinds of where to buy dissertations television talk occur at different times of the new courseworks broadcast day, but much of mobility this talk occurs outside the cumc confines of what audiences and critics have come to electrophoretic shift protocol know as the new courseworks talk show. Major talk traditions have developed around news, entertainment, and a variety of social encounters that have been reframed and adapted for television. For example, talk is featured on game shows, dating or relationship shows, simulated legal encounters ( People's Court ) or shows that are essentially elaborate versions of practical jokes (Candid Camera ). All of these shows feature talk but are seldom referred to as talk shows. A talk show, on the other hand, is as a show that is homework help, quite clearly and self-consciously built around its talk. To remain on the air a talk show must adhere to strict time and cumc money constraints, allowing time, for instance, for the advertising spots that must appear throughout the show.
The talk show must begin and end within these rigid time limits and, playing to an audience of millions, be sensitive to how to social essay topics that will interest that mass audience. For its business managers the television talk show is new courseworks, one product among many and they are usually not amenable to anything that will interfere with profits and ratings. This kind of show is almost always anchored by a host or team of hosts. Talk shows are often identified by electrophoretic shift, the host's name in cumc the title, an indication of the importance of the homework jungle host in the history of the television talk show. Indeed, we might usefully combine the two words and talk about host/forms. A good example of the importance of the cumc new courseworks host to the form a talk show takes would be The Tonight Show. The Tonight Show premiered on NBC in 1954 with Steve Allen as its first host. While it maintained a distinctive format and homework jungle style throughout its first four decades on the air, The Tonight Show changed significantly with each successive host. Steve Allen, Ernie Kovacs, Jack Paar, Johnny Carson, and Jay Leno each took The Tonight Show in new courseworks a significant new direction. Each of these hosts imprinted the show with distinctive personalities and how to social science essay management styles. Though many talk shows run for new courseworks only weeks or months before being taken off the air, once established, talk shows and talk show hosts tend to help form have long runs.
The average number of cumc years on favorite roundup russell television for the thirty-five major talk show hosts listed at the end of this essay was eighteen years. Successful talk show hosts like Mike Wallace, Johnny Carson, and Barbara Walters bridge generations of new courseworks viewers. The longevity of these super stars increases their impact on the forms and formats of television talk with which they are associated. Television talk shows originally emerged out of homework jungle two central traditions: news and entertainment. Over time hybrid forms developed that mixed news, public affairs, and entertainment. These hybrid forms occupy a middle ground position between news and entertainment, though their hosts (Phil Donahue, Oprah Winfrey, and Geraldo Rivera, for example) often got their training in journalism. New Courseworks? Approximately a third of the major talk show hosts listed at the end of the shift assay protocol essay came out of news. The other two thirds came from entertainment (comedy in cumc particular).
Within the journalistic tradition, the names Edward R. Murrow, Mike Wallace, Ted Koppel and Bill Moyers stand out. News talk hosts like Murrow, Koppel, and Moyers do not have bands, sidekicks, or a studio audience. Their roles as talk show hosts are extensions of their roles as reporters and form news commentators. Their shows appear in evening when more adult and older aged viewers are watching. The morning host teams that mix happy talk and cumc new courseworks information also generally come from the news background. This format was pioneered by homework jungle, NBC's Sylvester Pat Weaver and host Dave Garroway with the Today show in the early 1950s. Hosts who started out on early morning news talk shows and new courseworks went on to anchor the evening news or primetime interview shows include: Walter Cronkite, John Chancellor, Barbara Walters, Tom Brokaw, and Jane Pauley. Each developed a distinctive style within the more conversational format of their morning show. Coming from a journalism background but engaging in dissertations find a wider arena of cultural topics were hosts like Phil Donahue, Oprah Winfrey, and new courseworks Geraldo Rivera.
Mixing news, entertainment, and homework jungle public affairs, Phil Donahue established talk television, an extension of the hot topic live radio call-in shows of the 1960s. Donahue himself ran a radio show in Dayton, Ohio before premiering his daytime television talk show. Donahue's Dayton show, later syndicated nationally, featured audience members talking about the cumc social issues that affected their lives. Within the field of entertainment/variety talk, it was the late night talk show that assumed special importance. Electrophoretic Shift? Late night talk picked up steam when it garnered national attention during the new courseworks talk show wars of the late 1960s and early 1970s. During this time Johnny Carson defended his ratings throne on the Tonight show against challengers Joey Bishop, David Frost, Dick Cavett and Merv Griffin. Late night talk show wars again received front page headlines when Carson's successors, Jay Leno, David Letterman, Chevy Chase, Arsenio Hall, Dennis Miller, and others engaged in fierce ratings battles after Carson's retirement. Within the United States these talk show wars assumed epic proportions in the press, and the impact that late night entertainment talk show hosts had over their audiences seemed, at cowboy roundup russell times, to assume that of political leaders or leaders of cumc state. In an age in shift assay which political theorists had become increasingly pessimistic about the possibilities of democracy within the public sphere, late night talk show hosts became sanctioned court jesters who appeared free to mock and new courseworks question basic American values and political ideas through humor.
Throughout the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s Johnny Carson's monologue on the Tonight show was considered a litmus test of public opinion, a form of commentary on the news. Jay Leno's and where dissertations find David Letterman's comic commentary continued the tradition. The ratings battle between Leno and Letterman in the early 1990s echoed the cumc earlier battles between Carson, Dick Cavett, and homework jungle Griffin. But it was not just comic ability that was demanded of the cumc late night hosts. They had to write social science possess a lively, quick-paced interview technique, a persistent curiosity arising directly from their comic world views, lively conversational skills, and an ability to cumc new courseworks listen and elicit information from a wide range of show business and where dissertations find civilian guests. It was no wonder that a relatively small number of these hosts survived more than a few years on the air to become stars. New Courseworks? Indeed, in all categories of the television talk show over social science four decades on the air, there were less than three dozen news and entertainment talk show hosts who achieved the new courseworks status of stars. While entertainment/variety talk dominated late night television, and the mixed public affairs/entertainment audience participation talk shows with hosts like Phil Donahue and Oprah Winfrey increasingly came filled daytime hours, prime time remained almost exclusively devoted to drama. While talk show hosts represent a potpourri of term paper styles and approaches, the number of talk show formats is actually quite limited. For example, a general interest hard news or public affairs show can be built around an cumc new courseworks expert panel ( Washington Week in homework jungle Review) , a panel and news figure ( Meet the Press ), a magazine format for a single topic (Nightline ), a magazine format that deals with multiple topics ( Sixty Minutes ), or a one-on-one host/guest interview (Bill Moyers' World of cumc new courseworks Ideas ). These are the standard formats for the discussion of hard news topics.
Similarly, a general interest soft news talk show that mixes entertainment, news and public affairs can also be built around a single topic ( Donahue, Oprah , and Geraldo ), a magazine multiple topic format ( Today, Good Morning America ), or a one-on-one host/guest interview ( Barbara Walters Interview Special ). There are also special interest news/information formats that focus on such subjects as economics ( Wall Street Week ), sports ( Sports Club ), homemaking/fashion ( Ern Westmore Show ), personal psychology ( Dr. Help? Ruth ), home repair ( This Old House ), literature ( Author Meets the Critic ), and cooking ( Julia Childs ). Entertainment talk shows are represented by cumc new courseworks, a similarly limited number of formats. Where To Buy? By far the most prevalent is the cumc new courseworks informal celebrity guest/host talk show, which takes on form different characteristics depending upon what part of the day it is broadcast. New Courseworks? The late night entertainment talk show, with the publicity it received through the talk show wars, grew rapidly in popularity among viewers during its first four decades on the air. But there have also been morning versions of the essay favorite russell informal host/guest entertainment variety show ( Will Rodgers Jr. Show ), daytime versions ( The Robert Q. Lewis Show ), and special topic versions ( American Bandstand ). Some entertainment talk shows have featured comedy through satirical takes on talk shows ( Fernwood Tonight, The Larry Sanders Show ), monologues ( The Henry Morgan Show ), or comedy dialogue ( Dave and new courseworks Charley ). Some game shows have been built sufficiently around their talk that they are arguably talk shows in disguise ( Groucho Marx's You Bet Your Life , for instance). There are also a whole range of shows that are not conventionally known as talk shows but feature fresh talk and are built primarily around that talk. Algebra Term? These shows center on cumc new courseworks social encounters or events adapted to television: a religious service ( Life is write essay, Worth Living ), an cumc academic seminar ( Seminar ), a talent contest ( Talent Scouts ), a practical joke (Candid Camera ), mating rituals ( The Dating Game) , a forensic event ( People's Court ), or a mixed social event ( House Party) . The line between television talk and what formally constitutes a talk show is often not easy to draw and shifts over mobility shift assay time as new forms of television talk emerge. How To Read a Television Talk Show. There are many ways approaches to understanding a television talk show.
It may be viewed as a literary narrative, for instance, or as a social text. As literary texts, talk shows contain characters, settings, and even a loosely defined plot structure which re-enacts itself each evening in the talk rituals that take place in front of the camera. These narratives center on the host as the new courseworks central recurring character who frames and organizes the talk. Literary analysis of talk shows is relatively rare, but Michael Arlen's essay on the talk show in The Camera Age , or Kenneth Tynan's profile of Johnny Carson in The New Yorker , are superb examples of this approach. Talk shows can also be seen as social texts. Talk shows are indeed forums in which society tests out and comes to terms with the topics, issues and themes that define its basic values, what it means to be a citizen, a participating member of that society. The talk television shows of Phil Donahue, Oprah Winfrey become microcosms of society as cutting-edge social and cultural issues are debated and discussed.
By the where to buy early 1990s political and cumc social analysts began to pay increasing attention to these forms of television and a number of articles were written about them. Though new hosts and talk shows often appear in rapid succession, usually following expansion cycles in term the industry, significant changes in cumc new courseworks television talk occur more slowly. America Charlie Cowboy Favorite Russell? These changes have traditionally come about at cumc new courseworks the hands of america charlie roundup a relatively small number of new courseworks influential talk show hosts and programmers and have occurred within distinct periods of homework jungle television history. Cycles of Talk: The History of the Television Talk Show. The term talk show was a relatively late invention, coming into use in the mid-1960s, but shows based on various forms of spontaneous talk were a staple of cumc new courseworks broadcasting from term paper its earliest days.
Radio talk shows of one kind or another made up 24% of all radio programming from l927 to cumc new courseworks l956, with general variety talk, audience participation, human interest, and panel shows comprising as much as 40-60% of the daytime schedule. Network television from 1949 to 1973 filled over dissertations find half its daytime program hours with talk programming, devoting 15 to 20% of its evening schedule to talk shows of one kind or another. As the networks went into decline, their viewership dropping from 90% to 65% of the cumc new courseworks audience in the 1980s and early 1990s, talk shows were one form of programming that continued to expand on america artist essay the networks and in syndication. By the summer of 1993 the television page of USA Today listed seventeen talk shows and local papers as many as twenty-seven. In all, from 1948 to 1993 over two hundred talk shows appeared on the air.
These shows can be broken down into cumc, four cycles of television talk show history corresponding to four major periods of television history itself. The first cycle took place from 1948-62 and featured such hosts as Arthur Godfrey, Dave Garroway, Edward R. Murrow, Arlene Francis, and Jack Paar. These hosts had extensive radio experience before coming to television and they were the where dissertations founders of television talk. During this time the talk show's basic forms--coming largely out of cumc previous radio and stage traditions--took shape. The second cycle covers the period from 1962 to 1972 when the networks took over from sponsors and advertising agencies as the dominant forces in talk programming. Help? A small but vigorous syndicated talk industry grew during this period as well. In the 1960s and early 1970s three figures established themselves on cumc new courseworks the networks as talk hosts with staying power: Johnny Carson, Barbara Walters, and Mike Wallace. Each was associated with a program that became an established profit center for their network and each used that position to negotiate the sustained status with the network that propelled them into the 1970s and 1980s as a star of television talk. The third cycle of television talk lasted from artist charlie cowboy favorite roundup russell 1970 to 1980.
During this decade challenges to network domination arose from a number of quarters. While the cumc new courseworks networks themselves were initiating few new talk shows by 1969, syndicated talk programming exploded. Twenty new talk shows went on where to buy dissertations the air in 1969 (up to then the average number of new shows rarely exceeded five). It was a boom period for television talk--and the time of the first nationally publicized talk show wars. New technologies of production (cheaper television studios and production costs), new methods of distribution (satellite transmission and cable), and key regulatory decisions by the FCC made nationally syndicated talk increasingly profitable and attractive to investors. Talk show hosts like Phil Donahue took advantage of the situation. Expanding from 40 markets in 1974 to a national audience of 167 markets in 1979, Donahue became the cumc nation's number one syndicated talk show host by the late 1970s. Other new talk show hosts entered the field as well. Bill Moyers' Journal went on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) in 1970, and William Buckley's Firing Line, which had appeared previously in how to a good syndication, went on PBS a year later. Both Moyers and Buckley, representing liberal and conservative viewpoints respectively, were to remain significant figures on public broadcasting for the next two decades.
During this time independent stations and station groups, first run syndication, cable and VCR's began to weaken the networks' once invincible hold over national audiences. The fourth cycle of television talk took place in the period from 1980 to new courseworks 1992, a period that has been commonly referred to homework jungle as the post-network era. Donahue's success in syndication was emulated by others, most notably Oprah Winfrey, whose Donahue-style audience participation show went into cumc new courseworks, national syndication in homework jungle 1986. Winfrey set a new record for syndication earnings, grossing over a hundred million dollars a year from the start of her syndication. She became, financially, the most successful talk show host on television. By the early 1980s the cumc networks were vigorously fighting back.
Late Night with David Letterman and Ted Koppel's Nightline were two network attempts to win back audiences. Both shows gained steady ratings over time and established Koppel and Letterman as stars of television talk. Out of each of these cycles of television talk preeminent talk show hosts emerged. Following the careers of these hosts allows us to we see how talk shows are built from within by strong personalities and effective production teams, and shaped from term without by powerful economic, technological, and cultural forces. Regis Philbin and Kathie Lee Gifford. Paradigm Shifts in Late Night Entertainment: Carson to Letterman. Johnny Carson, for thirty years the King of Late Night, and his successor, David Letterman, were in cumc many ways alike.
Their rise to fame could be described by the same basic story. A young man from America's heartland comes to the city, making his way through its absurdities and frustrations with feckless humor. This exemplary middle American is square and at the same time sophisticated, innocent, though ironic and irreverent. Artist Essay? Straddling the worlds of common sense and cumc show business, the young man becomes a national jester--and is so anointed by homework jungle, the press. The type Johnny Carson and cumc David Letterman represent can be traced to earlier archetypes: the Yankee character in early American theater and the Toby character of nineteenth century tent repertory.
Carson brought his version of this character to television at the end of the Eisenhower and homework jungle beginning of the new courseworks Kennedy era, poking fun at American consumerism and politics in the late 1950s and 1960s. Letterman brought his own version of this sharp-eyed American character to the television screen two decades later at the beginning of the Reagan era. By this time the youth revolts in paper the 1960s and 1970s were already on the wane, and Letterman replaced the politics of confrontation represented by the satire of such shows as Saturday Night Live and cumc SCTV with a politics of accommodation, removal, and irony. His ironic stance was increasingly acknowledged as capturing the voice of his generation and, whether as cause or effect, Letterman became a generational symbol. The shift from Carson to Letterman represented not only a cultural change but a new way of looking at television as a medium. Carson's camera was rooted in the neutral gaze of the proscenium arch tradition; Letterman's camera roamed wildly and flamboyantly through the studio. Carson acknowledged the camera with sly asides; Letterman's constant, neurotic intimacy with the shift assay camera, characterized by his habit of moving right up to the lens and speaking directly into it, represented a new level of self-consciousness about the medium.
He extended the self-referentiality that Carson himself had promoted over the years on cumc his talk show. Indeed, Letterman represented a movement from what has been called a transparent form of television (the viewer taking for granted and looking through the forms of television: camera, lighting, switching, etc.) to an opaque form in homework jungle which the technology and practices of the medium itself become the new courseworks focus of the show. Letterman changed late night talk forever with his post-modern irreverence and mocking play with the forms of television talk. Paradigm Shifts in the Daytime Audience Participation Talk Show: Donahue to Winfrey. When Oprah Winfrey rose to national syndication success in 1986 by social science, challenging Phil Donahue in major markets around the cumc country and winning ratings victories in many of these markets, she did not change the where format of the audience participation talk show. That remained essentially as Donahue had established it twenty years before. What changed was the cultural dynamics of this kind of show and that in turn was a direct reflection of the person who hosted it.
The ratings battle that ensued in 1986 was between a black woman raised by cumc, a religious grandmother and strict father within the fold of a black church in the South against a white, male, liberal, Catholic Midwesterner who had gone to Notre Dame and term been permanently influenced by the women's movement. As Jackie Robinson had broken baseball's color barrier four decades earlier, Oprah Winfrey broke the new courseworks color line for national television talk show hosts in 1986. She became one of the great Horatio Alger rags-to-riches story of the 1980s (by the where dissertations early 1990s People Weekly was proclaiming her the richest woman in show business with an estimated worth of cumc $200 million), and as Arsenio Hall and Bob Costas ended their six and homework jungle seven year runs on television in the early 1990s, it became clear that Oprah Winfrey had staying power. She remained one of the few prominent talk show hosts of the 1980s to survive within the new courseworks cluttered talk show landscape of mid-1990s. Several factors contributed to this success. For one thing, Winfrey had a smart management team and a full-press national marketing campaign to catapult her into how to write essay, competition with Donahue. The national syndication deal had been worked out by Winfrey' representative, attorney-manager Jeffrey Jacobs, and cumc King World's marketing plan was a classic one. Executives at King World felt the media would pounce on a war with Donahue so they created one.
The first step was to charlie essay favorite roundup send tapes of Oprah's shows to focus groups in several localities to cumc see how they responded. The results were positive. The next step was to show tapes to how to a good social selected station groups--small network alliances of a half-dozen or more stations under a single owner. Cumc New Courseworks? These groups would be offered exclusive broadcast rights. As the reactions began to come in, King World adjusted its tactics. Rather than making blanket offers, they decided to open separate negotiations in america artist cowboy favorite roundup each city and new courseworks market. The gamble paid off. Winfrey's track record proved her a hot enough commodity to how to a good win better deals through individual station negotiation. To launch Winfrey on the air King World kicked off a major advertising campaign. Media publications trumpeted Oprah's ratings victories over Donahue in Baltimore and Chicago. The Donahue-buster strategy was tempered by Winfrey herself, who worked hard not to appear too arrogant or conceited.
When asked about head-on competition with Donahue she replied that in a majority of markets she did not compete with him directly and that while Donahue would certainly remain the king, she just wanted to be a part of the monarchy. New Courseworks? By the where find time The Oprah Winfrey Show went national in September of 1986 it had been signed by cumc new courseworks, over 180 stations--less than Donahue's 200-plus but approaching that number. As well as refined marketing and advertising techniques, cultural issues also featured prominently in Winfrey's campaign. Winfrey's role as talk show host was inseparable from her identity as an African American woman. Her African American heritage and a good social essay roots surfaced frequently in press accounts. One critic described her in a 1986 Spy magazine article as capaciously built, black, and extremely noisy. These and other comments on new courseworks her black style were not lost on Winfrey.
She confronted with the issue of help race constantly and was very conscious of her image as an African American role model. When a USA Today reporter queried Winfrey bluntly about the issue of race in new courseworks August of 1986, asking her as someone who is not pencil-thin, white, nor blond, how she was transcending barriers that have hindered many in television, Winfrey replied as follows: I've been able to mobility protocol do it because my race and gender have never been an new courseworks issue for me. Homework Help Form? I've been blessed in knowing who I am, and I am a part of a great legacy. I've crossed over on the backs of Sojourner Truth, and Harriet Tubman, and cumc new courseworks Fannie Lou Hamer, and Madam C.J.
Walker. Because of them I can now soar. Because of them I can now live the dream. Winfrey's remarks represent the double-voiced identity of many successful African American public figures. Homework Jungle? Such figures, according to Henry Louis Gates, demonstrate 'his or her own membership in the human community and then . resistance to that community.' In the mid-1980s, then, the new courseworks image of Oprah Winfrey as national talk show host played against both white and black systems of values and aesthetics. It was her vitality as a double-sign, not simply her role as an Horatio Alger figure, that made her compelling to a national audience in the United States.
Hosts like Letterman and Winfrey played multiple roles. They were simultaneously star performers, managing editors, entrepreneurs, cultural symbols and artist roundup russell setters of social trends. Of all the star performers who dot the landscape of television, the talk show host might have the most direct claim to the film director's status as auteur. Cumc? Hosts like Letterman and Winfrey had to homework help constantly re-invent themselves, in the words of Kenneth Tynan, to sustain themselves within the highly competitive world of network television. The talk show, like the daily newspaper, is often considered a disposable form. The first ten years of Johnny Carson's Tonight shows, for example, were erased by NBC without any thought to future use. Scholars have similarly neglected talk shows. News and drama offered critics from the arts, humanities, and social sciences at new courseworks least a familiar place to begin their studies.
Talk shows were different, truly synthetic creations of television as a medium. Nonetheless, talk shows have become increasingly important on homework jungle television and their hosts increasingly influential. They speak to cultural ideas and ideals as forcefully as politicians or educators. Cumc? National talk show hosts become surrogates for the citizen. Interrogators on the news or clown princes and to buy dissertations find jesters on entertainment talk shows, major television hosts have a license to question and mock--as long as they play within the rules. An investigation of the television talk show must, finally, delineate and examine those rules.
The first governing principle of the television talk show is that everything that occurs on the show is framed by cumc, the host who characteristically has a high degree of control over both the help form show and the production team. From a production point of view, the cumc host is the managing editor; from a marketing point of view, the host is the label that sells the product; from an how to essay power and cumc new courseworks organizational point of view, the host's star value is the fulcrum of power in shift contract negotiations with advertisers, network executives, and syndicators. Without a brand-name host, a show may continue but it will not be the same. A second principle of television talk show is new courseworks, that it is experienced in a good social the present tense. Cumc New Courseworks? This is homework jungle, true whether the show is new courseworks, live or taped as-if live in front of a studio audience. Live, taped, or shown in electrophoretic mobility shift protocol reruns, talk shows are conducted, and cumc viewers participate in them, as if host, guest and viewer occupy the same moment. As social texts, television talk shows are highly sensitive to electrophoretic shift the topics of their social and new courseworks cultural moment. These topics may concern passing fashions or connect to deeper preoccupations. References to the O.J.
Simpson case on television talk shows in the mid-1990s, for artist charlie cowboy essay favorite roundup russell example, reflected a preoccupation in the United States with domestic violence and issues of gender, race, and class. Talk shows are, in this sense, social histories of their times. While it is host-centered, occurring in new courseworks a real or imagined present tense, sensitive to the historical moment, and based on a form of public/private intimacy, the television talk show is write science, also a commodity. Talk shows have been traditionally cheap to produce. In 1992 a talk show cost less than $100,000 compared to up to cumc new courseworks a million dollars or more for a prime time drama. By the early 1990s developments in video technology made talk shows even more economical to produce and touched off a new wave of talk shows on the air. Form? Still, the rule of the market place prevailed. A joke on Johnny Carson' final show that contained 75 words and ran 30 seconds was worth approximately $150,000--the cost to advertisers of a 30-second spot on that show. Each word of the joke cost approximately $2000.
Though the rates of Carson's last show were particularly high, commercial time on television is new courseworks, always expensive, and homework help an industry of network and station reps, time buyers and sellers work constantly to negotiate and new courseworks manage the cost of talk commodities on the television market. If a talk show makes money over time, its contract will be renewed. If it does not, no matter how valuable or critically acclaimed it may be, it will be pulled from the air. America Charlie Cowboy Russell? A commodity so valuable must be carefully managed and planned. It must fit the commercial imperatives and time limits of for-profit television. Cumc? Though it can be entertaining, even outrageous, it must never seriously alienate advertisers or viewers. As we can see from the examples above, talk shows are shaped by many hands and guided by a clear set of form principles. These rules are so well known that hosts, guests and viewers rarely stop to new courseworks think about them.
What appears to be one of television's most unfettered and spontaneous forms turns out to, on closer investigation, one of its most complex and artful creations. -Bernard M. Homework Help? Timberg. MAJOR TALK SHOW HOSTS, 1948-94. Faye Emerson (1948-60), Arthur Godfrey (1948-61), Arlene Francis (1949-75), Dave Garroway (1949-61,69), Garry Moore (1950-77), Art Linkletter (1950-70), Steve Allen (1950-84), Ernie Kovacs (1951-61), Mike Wallace (1951-), Merv Griffin (1951-86), Edward R. Murrow (1951-59), Dinah Shore (1951-62, 1970-80), Jack Paar (1951-65,73), Mike Douglas (1953-82), Johnny Carson (1954-92), David Susskind (1958-87), Barbara Walters (1963-), David Frost (1964-5,69-73), William Buckley, (1966-), Dick Cavett(1968-72,75,77-82,85-86,92-), Joan Rivers (1969,83-), Phil Donahue (1970-), Bill Moyers (1971-), Tom Snyder (1973-82,94-), Geraldo Rivera (1974-), Ted Koppel (1979-), David Letterman (1980-), John Mclaughlin (1982-), Larry King (1983-), Oprah Winfrey (1986-), Sally Jesse Raphael (1986-), Arsenio Hall (1987-), Jane Pauley (1990-), Jay Leno (1992-), Ricki Lake (1992-). -Compiled by Robert Erler and Bernard Timberg. Carter, Bill. New Courseworks? The Late Shift: Letterman, Leno, And The Network Battle For The Night. New York: Hyperion, 1994.
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New York: Putnam's, 1986. Heaton, Jeanne Albronda and Nona Leigh. Tuning In Trouble: Talk TV's Destructive Impact On Mental Health. San Francisco: Josey-Bass, 1995. Himmelstein, Hal.
Television Myth and the American Mind. New York: Praeger, 1995. Hirsch, Alan. Help Form? Talking Heads: Political Talk Shows and Their Star Pundits. New York: St. Martin's, 1991. Latham, Caroline. The David Letterman Story: An Unauthorized Biography. New York: Franklin Watts, 1987. Letterman, David.
Interview. Playboy (Chicago), October 1984. Livingstone, Sonia, and Peter Lunt. Cumc New Courseworks? Talk On Television: Audience Participation And Public Debate . London: Routledge, 1994. Metz, Robert. The Today Show . Chicago: Playboy, 1977. Munson, Wayne.
All Talk: The Talkshow In Media Culture. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press, 1993. Timberg, Bernard. Mobility Assay? The Unspoken Rules of Television Talk. In, Newcomb, Horace, editor.
Television: The Critical View. Cumc? New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Tynan, Kenneth. Show People. New York: Simon Schuster, 1979. Priest, Patricia Joyner. Term? Public Intimacies: Talk Show Participants And Tell-All TV.
Creskill, New Jersey: Hampton, 1995.