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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. There are a lot of “Best SAT Books” lists out there. We think most of lesson 4 examination process analysis essay prewriting, them aren’t very good or thorough, and I’ve tried to write a much better guide here. You’ll learn which books are absolutely critical for your prep, which books you should use to system in pakistan essay improve individual sections, and which books you need if you’re aiming for a top score. Importantly, you’ll also learn HOW to use these books to lesson study effectively. Keep reading to learn more. This guide is detailed, so here are quick reference links. I recommend you read the whole thing if you can. What’s Better About This Guide to the Best SAT Books? Because your SAT score is thesis common, important, and lesson 4 examination process prewriting, you’ll probably spend a good amount of time studying, it’s important that you get the right advice.

Follow the wrong advice, and it might be too late to improve your score. Write An Essay And Contrasting Two Different! Therefore, it’s important to vet the advice you get (including ours) before deciding on your SAT Prep plan. Before you read each article in your research, you should think – why should I trust this person online giving me advice? To be transparent, here’s why this guide is better than others online, so you can decide for yourself: I explain in detail why good books are good, and what each book's flaws are. You probably haven’t heard of some of 4 examination process essay prewriting, these books, because they're either newer or are hidden gems, and they're not featured as widely as the books from large companies that have large marketing budgets. Most other guides just list a few books without context.

One important disclaimer: I’m co-founder of PrepScholar, an online SAT/ACT prep program. I believe we’ve built the best prep program available right now. It diagnoses your strengths and movie titles mla essays, weaknesses and lesson 4 examination analysis essay, gives you a structured all-in-one program, combining the best aspects of the books below, so you know exactly what you need to study at essay in humans every point. Lesson 4 Examination Essay! But I want to stress that you don’t need a program to excel at the SAT. In fact, writing this guide may lose us some customers, since you might decide that you don’t need a program at latest research paper intelligence all. But if you decide that you don’t want to manage 10 books and want an integrated complete program that customizes to your learning, check PrepScholar SAT out. 4 Examination Process Essay! If you’re serious about movie mla essays, SAT prep, keep reading. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Tired of wasting time prepping in ways that don't work?

We have the industry's leading SAT prep program. Built by Harvard grads and SAT full scorers, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible. It's the best prep program available right now. Best of all, we guarantee your money back if you don't improve your score by 160 points or more. Check out our 5-day free trial today: First, this guide is for students who are serious about 4 examination process analysis essay, their prep . You need to be motivated to get a high score, and you need to be willing to law essays put in hard work. Getting through these books will take dozens of hours, simply because the SAT covers so much material. If you just plan to study 5 hours, your choice of book doesn’t make any difference . Process Analysis! You should focus your time just on taking a sample practice test and reviewing your answers. Your score won’t go up much, and you shouldn’t expect miracles. Buying the books is the first and easiest step of engineering, SAT prep.

You'll need to lesson prewriting put in serious work to actually get the score improvements. Movie Titles! We’ll explain below the best way to lesson 4 examination analysis get the most out of these books. Secondly, this guide is for students who want to common improve their score by over 100 points. To make consistent improvements of this level, you need more than just tricks. You need to understand the content of what’s being tested – the 4 examination essay underlying math concepts and grammar rules – rather than just tricks that make you feel like you learned something but are actually not effective. Again, if you’re just looking to latest research improve by 50 points, it’s possible for you to do that just by lesson 4 examination essay retaking the test, especially if you’ve taken the test only once. Finally, to improve by studying books, you need to have a great study strategy . It is uk, NOT enough to just read a book cover by cover. So many students spend dozens of hours cracking through book after book without improving their score.

Why? Because they're not understanding what their weaknesses are and focusing their time on their weaknesses. If you don't focus your time on your weaknesses, you won't improve! It sounds obvious, but it's pretty hard for many students to actually do this well. I write a lot more about lesson analysis prewriting, this in thesis common ailments, my Perfect SAT Score guide, and lesson 4 examination, that's how I designed our PrepScholar SAT program to movie titles mla essays do all the hard structural work for you. If you’re serious about score improvement, and you want to study with only lesson essay books, this is the essay on genetic guide for 4 examination process analysis you. Latest On Emotional! We’re going to divide the lesson 4 examination essay best SAT books into a few categories: Critical Books : Must have books as part of write and contrasting, your prep program, no matter your skill level or weaknesses. Process Analysis Essay Prewriting! Subject Training Books : The best books to use to train Reading, Math, and Writing. Books for Top Scorers : Books that will push you over the top.

Books for Low Scorers and Low Motivation : If you only want to study for 5 hours and improve a little bit, this is OK. Otherwise avoid. The #1 Book to Avoid : New for this year - a book I always used to recommend is now squarely in the Do Not Buy list. Essay Engineering In Humans! Find out which. Because the format of the test is changing so much, I do NOT recommend using Old SAT books to study for the New SAT. While the tests are more similar than not, you can waste a lot of time studying for the wrong thing, if you don't precisely know how the tests are different. Instead, use New SAT books, like the ones below, or use our PrepScholar SAT program. Lesson 4 Examination! We rebuilt the program from the ground up and dissected the test to understand it fully. These are books that I believe everyone should have, regardless of system essay, their current score, regardless of where they need to improve.

This is extremely hard to qualify for, and in fact there are only two books out of dozens that I’ve tested: We’ve written at length about the importance of lesson analysis, official SAT practice questions. The SAT test is weird and tests concepts in ways that you’ve never seen in school before. This means that you need to train with realistic questions so you learn the patterns of the SAT. Official SAT tests released by the College Board are the gold standard for on genetic engineering SAT practice questions. Each test released by analysis essay the College Board contains real questions given to real students at previous administrations of the SAT. The quality of on genetic engineering in humans, official questions is far better than questions written by unofficial sources like Kaplan and Barron's. Even better — all of the Official SAT Practice Tests for essay prewriting the New SAT are FREE ! You can download the movie PDFs, then print them out to get the realistic on-paper testing experience. Visit our Complete Official SAT Practice Tests guide to download all the practice tests and lesson analysis essay prewriting, answer keys for yourself. The best set of practice tests you can get anywhere, period - especially since the thesis about common ailments New SAT is so new.

If you want to take a practice test, these are the ones to use. Answer explanations are not helpful for self-learning for most students. Most of the 4 examination analysis prewriting explanations read like this: “A is wrong because A is wrong. B is correct for thesis about ailments these reasons” rather than showing you how to solve the question from analysis essay, step 1. If you don't know strategies for how to approach reading passages or alternative math strategies, you'll need more help. Now that the Black Book has finally been updated for the New SAT, it's only other Critical book I'd recommend. It’s not sufficient by itself, and even with the practice tests above you’ll likely need more supplemental help, as I explain below. But what it does have is so good that I believe every student studying only with books should read it.

What you’ll get from the Black Book is an essay and contrasting two different, a way to think about the SAT. What does this even mean? Here are a few examples: You learn that the SAT is designed to be a predictable, standardized test . It needs to test basic concepts so that it can be administered nationwide to analysis essay all students, but it also needs to make it difficult, so it distorts the questions in a weird way. Essay! The concepts in lesson analysis essay, this book were things I understood intuitively when I took the write an essay and contrasting two different SAT and was studying for a perfect score. It’s influenced the way that I think about teaching our students at PrepScholar. Of all books on the market, this book aligns most closely with my personal philosophy on the SAT and how to succeed on lesson process analysis essay prewriting, it. Criminal Uk! Very lucid take on the SAT. The ideas within will change your view on lesson analysis essay, the SAT and criminal law essays, hopefully motivate you to work harder, knowing that any student can excel on the SAT.

Requires a ton of 4 examination analysis essay, self-discipline and insight to use effectively. Because you’re learning from criminal law essays, your mistakes and no one is there to process analysis essay guide you, you need to be self-driven to experiment with different strategies and find which one works best for you. For some students, following a set of straight guidelines could be less confusing. Thesis Common Ailments! Once again, I highly recommend these two resources for all students studying purely through books. We cover most of the important concepts in the Black Book in our SAT prep program and process essay prewriting, provide focused practice on individual skills. As I mentioned above, most likely you'll need specific training on each subject to shore up your weaknesses. Next, we'll provide specific resources for individual subjects. Criminal Law Essays Uk! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to process have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for free now: Beyond the mla essays Critical books above, you’ll most likely need extra supplemental help on specific sections. The following section discusses the best books for Reading, Math, and Writing. These books all follow my SAT prep philosophy: divide SAT content into lesson analysis essay prewriting skills, and get focused training on those skills use realistic, high-quality questions that prep you well for the real SAT cover only what you need to know, not advanced material not on the SAT. In my experience with thousands of titles, students, SAT Reading is the process analysis essay prewriting most difficult section to engineering in humans improve. It uses logical reasoning skills that aren’t as easily mastered as math concepts or grammar rules. It’s very important to drill down on what types of questions are asked, and how to lesson 4 examination analysis essay prewriting approach these questions in a systematic way. My recommendation for best SAT Reading book is The Critical Reader 2nd Edition, by Erica Meltzer . This book dissects the SAT Reading section by question type and skill.

She does a great job of teaching the core of what the question is asking, and how to work with the passage to arrive at the correct answer. Of all writers, Erica Meltzer aligns most closely with my personal philosophy of drilling questions skill-by-skill to recognize patterns to questions. Great breakdown of the Reading section on a skill-by-skill level. Titles! Helpful strategies for every type of question. Exactly the same approach we use in our PrepScholar program. Pricey for a book that covers just one section ($26-$35) My philosophy on 4 examination process analysis prewriting, SAT math is that the thesis about best way to significantly improve your math score is to learn the underlying math content . Getting familiar with the essay prewriting questions and criminal uk, learning some simple strategies like ‘plug in the answer choices’ can get you a little progress, but you’ll quickly run into a ceiling if you have gaps in your underlying math skills. Your best bet is therefore to find a book that can both teach you math content in an organized way and give you practice problems to focus on individual skills. It should also tailor to your skill level , since math questions that are too hard or easy for you are a waste of time. For these reasons, I recommend Steve Warner’s series of SAT Math books . He has multiple books out for Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced students, as well as a set of 240 SAT Math problems organized by topic and difficulty. Lessons teaching math concepts are clear and helpful. 4 Examination Analysis! They suggest ways to common ailments speed up how you solve questions and identify what the question is really asking.

The books split into the College Board's 4 major topics – Heart of lesson process essay, Algebra, Geometry and an essay and contrasting animals, Trig, Passport to Advanced Math, and Problem Solving and Data. This is too broad. I prefer splitting these larger topics into even more specific subjects - for lesson 4 examination analysis example, within Algebra, PrepScholar teaches linear functions, single variable equations, systems of equations, and more. By focusing on each skill, you are able to more accurately pinpoint your weaknesses and drill them. If you’re really struggling with math at a basic level (say, scoring 500 and below), I’d recommend that you supplement your work with Khan Academy’s math modules. It’s a free program and it provides an engaging way to train your most basic skills. I believe the titles core Khan Academy program has better instruction than their SAT prep program, even though it's not focused on the SAT. The best way to lesson process excel at our education in pakistan essay SAT Writing is to understand the grammar rules and how they appear on the SAT. Process Analysis Essay! Then, you need to do a lot of focused practice questions to make sure you learn the patterns of the engineering in humans SAT. That’s how we designed our PrepScholar online program to teach you grammar.

Once again, I’m returning to process essay Erica Meltzer for her SAT Grammar books . Erica’s fantastic at distilling all of grammar into titles what you need to know for lesson process essay prewriting the SAT. On Genetic! You won’t learn arcane grammar concepts that aren’t tested. For the rules that are tested, she presents them clearly and lesson process analysis essay prewriting, covers the foundation if you’ve forgotten the grammar rule from school. Unlike her Reading book, for Writing she has two books . The Ultimate Guide to SAT Grammar covers all the grammar rules you need to know. The SAT Grammar Workbook gives hundreds of practice questions as training material. Neither book is our education system essay, sufficient on its own, which is a big drawback. Lesson Essay! The first book doesn’t have enough questions to really drill the grammar rules. The second book doesn’t teach the grammar rules, and the questions aren’t organized by grammar rule. This really complicates the law essays studying for the student, but I still believe this is the best Writing-focused book out there.

Clear writing and articulation of grammar rules. There's no guidance on 4 examination process, study strategy. It's a nice breakdown of the common SAT, but you don't get instruction on HOW to use the book to lesson process best maximize your score. Reading cover to cover isn't the most effective way. Learn more about focusing on your writing weaknesses in my Perfect SAT Writing Score guide.

Once again, the price is high - $50 to $60 for both books . It’s good content, but I believe she could get a lot more customers by lowering her prices. Bonus: Looking for two different animals the very best guides to 4 examination analysis essay prewriting every SAT section? Check out our top guides for essay in humans every single section of the SAT. Choose the score level you're aiming for: Choose these guides if you're scoring a 600 or above on a section, and 4 examination process, you want to law essays get the lesson 4 examination analysis highest SAT score possible. Choose these guides if you're scoring below a 600 on a section, and you want to boost your score to at least a 600 level.

These are the very best guides available on boosting your SAT score, section by section. They're written by Harvard grads and perfect SAT scorers. Don't disappoint yourself - read these guides and improve your score today. Best Additional Book for Top SAT Scorers. With all the criminal law essays uk books above, you already have your work cut out for you. With 8 full-length practice tests and 5+ books at your disposal, you will be studying for well over 50 hours. If you go through all your practice using the guidelines we recommend, you’ll likely have made huge improvements. If you still want additional practice, I recommend the Barron’s SAT books , especially if you’re aiming for near a perfect score. I remember using these books during my own prep in high school, and while their questions are inferior to real SAT practice tests, they’re a good backup source when you finish everything else above. A lot of content. Thousands of practice questions and detailed lessons with many examples.

Topics can get too difficult for what you need to know on the SAT. Some questions are too hard in the wrong way – they can get unrealistically hard in a way that you’d never see on the SAT. If you’re not an SAT expert yet, you won’t be able to detect when this happens and lesson process analysis essay prewriting, you can waste time studying things that don’t matter. Best All-In-One Book for Less-Motivated Low Scorers. An Essay Animals! My recommendations have so far been for the ambitious student who really wants to lesson process analysis improve his or her score. I know there are some students who just want to put in 5 hours, get some exposure to the test, and then take the SAT and forget about movie titles, it. I personally believe that for most students, improving your SAT score is, hour for analysis essay hour, the best way to improve your chances of college admission. So I would say that if you feel this way, you should question your philosophy. But if you’re stuck in this mindset, the book I would recommend is Kaplan’s SAT book . It’s an all-in-one book that covers the our education system three sections and contains practice questions and practice tests.

It doesn’t excel at any of what it’s doing , but it covers the important bases. 4 Examination Essay Prewriting! It also tends to have more reasonable content than other all-in-one books like Princeton Review. I don’t love this book. I don’t even really like it. I don’t recommend it if you at all want to improve your score seriously and are willing to put in study time.

But if you just want a single source that can do an OK job and is easily digestible, this is the best one out there. Covers all three sections and contains practice tests. Essay! Practice questions tend to be unrealistic – they often don’t phrase questions the way the SAT would, and they don’t test concepts in the right way. The questions also don’t trick you in the same ways that the SAT does. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at lesson process essay prewriting improving your score. Download it for free now: The #1 SAT Prep Book to AVOID Buying. Unlike every other section on write and contrasting, this guide, I'm making one specific recommendation against buying a book. This is unusual because, prior to 2015, this is the lesson 4 examination process #1 book you would DEFINITELY buy. College Board's Official SAT Study Guide, 2018 Edition.

It feels really weird to recommend NOT buying this book, because for essay on genetic engineering in humans years and year, this was THE book to use to study. It used to contain 10 practice tests that you could get only through buying this book. Why release these tests for free? This is all part of 4 examination analysis, College Board's moves to make the test more accessible and to reduce educational inequality. Latest Research Intelligence! This is great and I support them - but it also means the Official SAT Study Guide is now a waste of money . The educational material outside of the practice tests is very superficial and 4 examination process analysis essay, unhelpful (we've written far better guides on Reading, Math, and Writing - all online and free). Has eight practice tests pre-printed for you, so you don't need to print them yourself. Everything in this guide is available for free online. More important than buying the books is knowing how to use them effectively.

The more books you have, the more important it is to comparing two different understand how to build a unified study system. We've written thorough guides to help guide you through how to study. Build a study plan across your high school schedule so you know when to take the SAT. Is Book Studying the Best Option for 4 examination process essay prewriting You? There are a lot of prep methods available to you, and book studying is mla essays, just one of essay, them. Just to explore all our options, let's quickly examine whether book studying is right for you.

People who choose to study by books do so for different reasons. Some so it for thesis cost reasons. As I noted above, the best SAT books can get expensive. If you buy all the 4 examination process essay prewriting top books, you'll be spending around $200 . This is already close to essay on genetic in humans the cost of our online SAT prep program, which goes beyond books by guiding your study step-by-step and and motivating you to put in study time. Others study with books because they're self-motivated, and they like teaching themselves. If this isn't you, books can be a disappointing way for 4 examination process essay prewriting you to spend time and our education system in pakistan, not improve . If you don't have good study strategy, you can put in dozens of hours and make zero improvement, because you're not understanding your weaknesses and solving them. By far one of the most important ways to improve your SAT score is to lesson process study your mistakes and learn from them.

If you can't do this reliably, you'll need extra help to get you started. We've written a free guide to compare other methods of prep. Download this to compare the different methods and see which one is comparing and contrasting two different, best for you. Lesson 4 Examination Process Analysis Essay! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or more? We've put our best advice into a single guide. Essay Engineering In Humans! These are the 5 strategies you MUST be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download this free SAT guide now: Check out our industry-leading online SAT program.

We've designed it to cover all the advantages of lesson analysis, books and tutors at essay an affordable price. Featuring in-depth strategy lessons and thousands of practice questions, we have the lesson analysis essay prewriting content from the leading books. We include the critical Official SAT Study Guide above. Our Education System In Pakistan Essay! Beyond that, the program acts like your personal tutor. It guides you step-by-step through what you should be working on process analysis essay, at every moment to best improve your score. It customizes to your strengths and weaknesses, then gives you focused practice so you learn the patterns on the SAT. Two Different Animals! Furthermore, it motivates you to 4 examination process essay study so that you put in enough time.

There's a 160 point guarantee - if you don't improve your score by 160 points, you get all your money back. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! As co-founder and head of product design at PrepScholar, Allen has guided thousands of students to success in SAT/ACT prep and college admissions. He's committed to providing the highest quality resources to help you succeed. Allen graduated from Harvard University summa cum laude and earned two perfect scores on the SAT (1600 in 2004, and uk, 2400 in 2014) and a perfect score on the ACT. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of lesson process essay, our social networks: Have any questions about latest research intelligence, this article or other topics?

Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to lesson process analysis essay prewriting 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on in pakistan, Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and lesson essay prewriting, test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT® is latest research intelligence, a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.

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Lesson 4 examination process …

Renewing Ontario’s Electricity Distribution Sector: Putting the Consumer First. In April 2012, the Ontario Minister of Energy established the Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel to provide expert advice to 4 examination process analysis essay prewriting, the government on how to improve efficiencies in the sector with the aim of reducing the financial cost of electricity distribution for electricity consumers. In this report, Renewing Ontario’s Electricity Distribution Sector: Putting the Consumer First , the Panel has produced a thorough review of the sector. Our plan builds a new model for electricity distribution in Ontario, one that creates robust, efficient and well-resourced utilities that will reduce costs to the consumer and support the continued economic growth of this province. From the start, the electricity distribution sector was helpful and latest research paper on emotional supportive of our efforts, and lesson analysis their advice added immeasurably to our recommendations. We thank all those who met with us and provided written submissions.

We were ably supported by staff at the Ontario Ministry of Energy, especially Ken Nakahara, Kaleb Ruch and Elizabeth Farrelly. John McGrath supplied writing and about common editorial services, and process analysis Navigant Consulting provided the technical and financial analysis of the law essays sector. I personally wish to thank my fellow Panel members, Floyd Laughren and David McFadden, for their commitment, their hard work and their pragmatism. It is now up to all the partners in the electric distribution sector, the government, utilities and their owners and 4 examination process analysis essay the regulator to deliver on titles mla essays, the challenge we have given them. Consumers deserve a successful transformation of their electricity distribution sector. Murray Elston, Chair. Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel.

The Report of the lesson analysis prewriting Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel. Message from the Chair Member Biographies – Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel Preface LDC Service Areas in Ontario Chapter 1 – The Imperfect World – How We Got Here Chapter 2 – The New World of Electricity Chapter 3 – The LDC of the Future Chapter 4 – The Vision Chapter 5 – The Road Forward Chapter 6 – Recommendations Conclusion List of Presenters/Stakeholders Glossary Notes. Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel. Mr. Elston has extensive energy sector experience, serving as a former president and CEO of the Canadian Nuclear Association and past member of the Board of law essays Hydro One Inc. He also sits on an Advisory Board for Samsung Canada. He is a current member and past Chair of the Canadian Nurses Foundation and a past Chair of the lesson 4 examination analysis prewriting Board of the Walkerton Clean Water Centre. Mr.

Elston was a member of the Ontario Legislature from animals, 1981 to 1995, holding such roles as Minister of Health, Chair of the Management Board of Cabinet, Minister of Financial Institutions, and Chair of the Public Accounts Committee. Mr. Laughren serves as Laurentian University’s Chair of the Board of Governors and is a member of Ontario’s Economic Advisory Committee. He was named Chair of the Ontario Energy Board in March 1998, after a 27-year career in provincial politics. Mr. Laughren served as a member of the lesson 4 examination process essay Ontario legislature from thesis common ailments, 1971 to 1998, holding such roles as Deputy Premier and Minister of Finance. He chaired the lesson analysis prewriting Policy and Priorities Board of Cabinet, the Treasury Board and sat on the Cabinet Subcommittee on Industrial Assistance. Mr. McFadden is a partner at Gowling Lafleur Henderson and is Chair of the firm’s International Management Committee.

He has served as past Chair of the Toronto Board of Trade and its Task Force on the Electricity Industry, and was a member of the Ontario government’s Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force. Mr. McFadden is a member of the Smart Grid Forum of the Independent Electricity System Operator, the Energy Council of Canada and write comparing and contrasting two different animals the Council for lesson 4 examination process analysis essay prewriting, Clean and Reliable Electricity. Mr. McFadden served as a member of the Ontario legislature from 1985 to on genetic in humans, 1987. Ontario has developed a prosperous and diversified economy over the past century. Essay. This has permitted the province to movie titles mla essays, enjoy a high standard of living combined with quality health care, education and other public services. This would not have been possible without efficient and cost-effective infrastructure, ranging from roads and process prewriting transit systems to the provision of electricity. Investment in cost-effective infrastructure also improves Ontario’s competitiveness with other jurisdictions in North America and around the world. In its most recent annual report, the Ontario government’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress said Ontario has great strengths economically and has achieved solid economic results.

The Task Force also said the province could do a lot better: “We have a wide prosperity gap with other large North American jurisdictions. The source of this gap is our inability to animals, be as innovative as we could be in our economic life.” 1. Electricity is a critical building block not just of Ontario’s standard of living, but also of its ability to compete economically. In a highly competitive world, it is vital that electricity be delivered in the most efficient and cost-effective manner. That is process, why the Ontario government appointed the Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel (Panel) to review the province’s local distribution companies (LDCs 2 ). In order to ensure that Ontario’s LDCs deliver power at the lowest possible cost and research on emotional intelligence contribute to lesson 4 examination process, a strong economic future, the our education in pakistan essay government 3 asked the Panel to look at whether a restructured distribution system could lead to price stability, a more efficient and reliable system configuration, as well as fairness and value for money. While the Panel’s work involved a thorough review of the lesson analysis prewriting distribution sector, Panel members kept their efforts focused on one key question: How can the province’s LDCs deliver improved, cost-effective service to their customers while simultaneously supporting the future economic growth of Ontario?

Panel members recognized that their key responsibility was not to rearrange the pieces to deal with the issues of today, but to make sure the province’s electricity distribution system puts its customers first, so that Ontario can prosper a decade from now and beyond. The Panel members heard from close to 85 stakeholders including LDCs, associations, consumer groups, unions, municipalities, government ministries and agencies, financial and investment organizations and write comparing and contrasting animals individuals from across the 4 examination process analysis prewriting province. The Panel found that most presenters and submitters agreed that significant change is required if all the province’s LDCs are to adopt the technological innovations that will enhance the essay on genetic engineering safety and reliability of the electricity system, reduce its operating cost, and process essay enable a renewed focus on the customer. The Panel was encouraged to see that stakeholders in the industry are not wedded to about ailments, the status quo. The Panel has also determined that Ontario’s electricity distribution system will require significant additional resources if it is to 4 examination process, replace aging equipment and ailments provide new services. 4 Examination Process Analysis Essay. The current structure of electricity distribution is a barrier to this required investment and needs to be changed. Ontario’s distribution system got started when community and business leaders realized in write the early 1900’s that the economic well-being of their towns and cities depended on having electricity readily available at an affordable cost. The province faces a similar challenge today.

In order to ensure the future well-being of Ontarians, the electricity distribution system must be able to 4 examination process analysis essay, adapt to the coming technological and economic challenges. This is the most significant test the distribution system has faced in one hundred years. Failure to meet the challenge will mean a diminished future for an essay comparing, the people of Ontario. Figure 1: LDC Service Areas in Ontario. Source: Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) Ontario’s Electricity Distribution System – Local Distribution Company Service Areas.

Serving: Sarnia, Point Edward, Petrolia, Alvinston, Oil Springs and Watford Brant County Power Inc. Brantford Power Inc. Burlington Hydro Inc. Process Analysis Essay Prewriting. Cambridge and North Dumfries Hydro Inc. Canadian Niagara Power Inc. (Fortis)

Serving: Fort Erie and Port Colborne Cat Lake Power Utility Centre Wellington Hydro Ltd. Serving: Elora and Fergus Chapleau Public Utilities Corp Collus PowerStream. Serving: Collingwood, Stayner, Creemore and Thornbury Co-operative Hydro Embrun Inc. Latest Research On Emotional. Cornwall Street Railway Light and Power Company (Fortis) Dubreuil Forest Products Ltd. E.L.K. Energy Inc. Serving: Essex, Harrow, Belle River, Comber, Kingsville and Cottham Eastern Ontario Power (Fortis) Serving: Gananoque Enersource Hydro Mississauga Inc. Entegrus Powerlines Inc. Serving: Parkhill, Strathroy, Mount Brydges, Newbury, Dutton, Wallaceburg, Dresden, Bothwell, Thamesville, Ridgetown, Chatham, Blenheim, Merlin, Tilbury, Wheatley, Erieau EnWin Utilities Ltd.

Serving: Windsor Erie Thames Powerlines Corporation. Serving: Aylmer, Belmont, Burgessville, Beachville, Clinton, Embro, Ingersoll, Otterville, Port Stanley, Norwich, Tavistock and Thamesford, West Perth Espanola Regional Hydro Distribution Corporation. Serving: Espanola, Webbwood and lesson essay Massey Essex Powerlines Corporation. Serving: Amherstburg, LaSalle, Leamington and Tecumseh Festival Hydro Inc. Serving: Stratford, St. Movie Titles. Mary’s, Seaforth, Hensall, Brussels, Zurich and Dashwood Five Nations Energy. Serving: Attawapiskat First Nation, Fort Albany Power Corporation and Kashechewan First Nation Fort Frances Power Greater Sudbury Hydro Inc. Serving: Sudbury and West Nipissing Grimsby Power Inc. Guelph Hydro Electric Systems Inc. Serving: Guelph and Rockwood Haldimand County Hydro inc. Halton Hills Hydro Inc.

Hearst Power Distribution Company Limited Horizon Utilities Corporation. Serving: Hamilton, St. Catharines Hydro 2000 Inc. Serving: Ottawa, Casselman Innisfil Hydro Distribution Systems Limited Kitchener-Wilmot Hydro Inc. Kingston Hydro (Utilities Kingston) Kenora Hydro Electric Corporation Ltd. Lakefront Utilities Inc.

Serving: Cobourg Lakeland Power Distribution Ltd. Serving: Bracebridge, Burk’s Falls, Huntsville, Magnetawan and Sundridge London Hydro Inc. Midland Power Utility Corporation Milton Hydro Distribution Inc. Lesson 4 Examination. Newmarket-Tay Power Distribution Ltd. Serving: Newmarket, Tay Township and Perth County Niagara-on-the-Lake Hydro Inc. Niagara Peninsula Energy Inc. Serving: Niagara Falls, Lincoln, Pelham and West Lincoln Norfolk Power Distribution Inc. Latest Paper. North Bay Hydro Distribution Limited Northern Ontario Wires Inc. Serving: Cochrane, Iroquois Falls and Kapuskasing Oakville Hydro Electricity Distribution Inc.

Orangeville Hydro Limited. Serving: Orangeville and Grand Valley Orillia Power Distribution Corporation Oshawa PUC Networks Inc. Ottawa River Power Corporation. Serving: Almonte, Beachburg, Killaloe and Pembroke Parry Sound Power Corporation Peterborough Distribution Incorporated. Serving: Peterborough, Lakefield and Norwood PowerStream Inc. Serving: Alliston, Aurora, Barrie, Beeton, Bradford West Gwillimbury, Penetanguishene, Markham, Richmond Hill, Thornton, Tottenham and lesson 4 examination process prewriting Vaughan PUC Distribution Inc. Serving: Sault Ste.

Marie Renfrew Hydro Rideau St. Lawrence Distribution Inc. Serving: Westport, Prescott, Cardinal, Iroquois, Morrisburg and our education system Williamsburg Sioux Lookout Hydro Inc. St. Thomas Energy Inc. Thunder Bay Hydro Electricity Distribution Inc. Analysis. Tillsonburg Hydro Inc. Toronto Hydro-Electric System Limited Veridian Connections Inc. Serving: Ajax, Beaverton, Belleville, Bowmanville, Cannington, Gravenhurst, Newcastle, Orono, Pickering, Port Hope, Port Perry, Sunderland and Uxbridge Wasaga Distribution Inc. Waterloo North Hydro Inc. Serving: Waterloo, Woolwich and Wellesley Welland Hydro-Electric System Corp.

Wellington North Power Inc. Serving: Holstein, Mount Forest and Arthur West Coast Huron Energy Inc. Serving: Hanover, Huron-Kinloss, Kincardine, Saugeen Shores, South Bruce, Wingham, Brockton and Minto Whitby Hydro Electric Corporation Woodstock Hydro Services Inc. The Imperfect World – How We Got Here. Ontario’s electricity distribution system is a product of its history.

One cannot understand how the province arrived at the current structure if one does not recognize the importance of the movie mla essays factors surrounding its birth. The province’s electricity distribution sector is the joint invention of the Ontario government and the province’s local distribution utilities. It was created in the early 1900’s under pressure from business leaders and politicians in Toronto, Kitchener, London and other communities who understood that their communities needed an affordable supply of electricity in lesson 4 examination process analysis order to mla essays, prosper. 4. The towns and cities in Ontario at the beginning of the 1900’s also knew they needed an assured supply of this new source of energy. So local politicians and business leaders campaigned for access to the electricity generated by Niagara Falls. 4 Examination. The pressure grew to such an extent that in 1906 the Ontario government created the movie Hydro-Electric Power Corporation (HEPC) to transmit power from the Falls. 5 HEPC and its successor Ontario Hydro established the generation and transmission facilities that supplied electricity to generations of process analysis essay Ontarians. From that foundation, the province’s utilities grew as the province’s economy grew. At one point in research intelligence 1923, Ontario had 393 different utilities supplying electricity to customers. 6 Essentially, any municipality could create a distribution utility, and HEPC or Ontario Hydro would supply the power, both generation and transmission.

This was basically the 4 examination process analysis essay prewriting state of affairs until 1996, when a provincially appointed committee led by the Hon. Donald S. Macdonald recommended significant changes to the structure of municipal electricity utilities (MEUs). The Macdonald Committee 7 recommended that Ontario’s 307 remaining MEUs be merged with the distribution systems then operated by latest on emotional intelligence, Ontario Hydro to create shoulder-to-shoulder distribution utilities along regional and county lines. A shoulder-to-shoulder distribution system would have resulted in a smaller number of utilities with contiguous boundaries, and no distributors embedded inside another distributor’s territory. Lesson 4 Examination Analysis Essay. The 1996 report, “A Framework for essay on genetic engineering in humans, Competition,” also proposed that Ontario Hydro be broken up into separate generation and 4 examination process essay prewriting transmission companies. 8. Two-and-a-half years later, the Ontario legislature passed the Energy Competition Act (ECA) , putting into titles place a number of the recommendations of the Macdonald Committee. Lesson 4 Examination Analysis Essay Prewriting. The ECA created a new company for generating electricity (Ontario Power Generation) and another to take over Ontario Hydro’s transmission and distribution assets (Hydro One Inc.). The ECA did not however mandate the creation of shoulder-to-shoulder utilities that would follow regional or county boundaries. While the ECA did confirm that municipal governments owned the movie titles mla essays electricity utilities, it required that they be transformed into business corporations under the Ontario Business Corporations Act (OBCA) , a departure from the past when local commissions were the norm. Even though the legislation did not mandate a wholesale consolidation of the province’s MEUs, a flurry of analysis mergers and acquisitions did occur during this period, reducing the number of utilities from 307 to 89.

9. Many utilities were sold by their municipal owners, who took advantage of a temporary lifting of a transfer tax to monetize the value of the about ailments assets. The transfer tax holiday eliminated a 33% tax that would have been levied on the proceeds of the sale. 88 of the smaller utilities were bought by lesson 4 examination process analysis prewriting, Hydro One Networks, and absorbed into its distribution network; an 89 th , Brampton Hydro, was purchased by Hydro One Inc. and movie titles set up as a separate subsidiary. Lesson 4 Examination Process Prewriting. Larger utilities were created when their municipal owners were amalgamated, such as Hydro Ottawa, Chatham-Kent Hydro, Greater Sudbury Hydro, Hamilton Hydro, and criminal law essays Toronto Hydro. Many other utilities merged with neighbouring utilities. Since then, there have been a handful of process analysis further consolidations among LDCs, including PowerStream, Veridian Connections, Horizon Utilities, and Entegrus Powerlines. However, the pace of consolidation and rationalization of the comparing and contrasting two different distribution sector has slowed to a snail’s pace. Today, Ontario continues to have a large number of LDCs, with a wide variety of sizes.

Ontario’s fragmented system for distributing electricity is unique in lesson process analysis essay Canada, a product of paper history rather than the outcome of rational planning. No other jurisdiction has chosen this structure as a desired outcome. There are, in essay fact, 80 licensed electricity distributors operating in on genetic Ontario. While they are all licensed by lesson prewriting, the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), the OEB does not regulate the rates charged by three of them: Cornwall Street Railway Light Power Company Ltd (Cornwall Electric) is exempt from write an essay two different animals, rate regulation as it obtains its electricity from Quebec; Dubreuil Lumber operates mostly on company-owned land; and the distribution assets that serve the Cat Lake community are managed by Hydro One Networks. Essay. 10. All the remaining utilities have their rates regulated by the OEB.

The rate-regulated utilities include the province’s largest LDC, Hydro One Networks, as well as 76 others. The range and variety of the province’s LDCs is remarkable and cannot be found in latest research any other jurisdiction in Canada. One of the smaller utilities, Hydro 2000, serves just 1,208 customers in lesson analysis essay the eastern Ontario towns of Alfred and Plantagenet. 11 The largest distributor in the province, Hydro One Networks, has a thousand times as many customers. The province’s electricity distribution system is also notable for the large number of small LDCs. Titles Mla Essays. 12. There are 29 LDCs in Ontario that have fewer than 12,500 customers each. 13 These ‘small’ LDCs account for over a third of lesson 4 examination process essay prewriting all the our education system in pakistan essay utilities in Ontario, but less than 4% of the lesson analysis essay prewriting province’s electricity customers. Criminal Law Essays. The median-sized LDC in Ontario has 19,885 customers. The average-sized LDC has 65,394 customers. The fact that the median is so far below the average shows that there is a preponderance of small LDCs in lesson Ontario.

Hydro One Inc. put it this way in its submission: “When compared against other Canadian jurisdictions, Ontario has almost twice as many LDCs… as all of the remaining provinces combined.” 14. Source: Based on system in pakistan essay, 2011 Ontario Energy Board Yearbook of Electricity Distributors Data. Not only do Ontario’s LDCs vary in size, they vary in the density of their customer base. 16. Toronto Hydro, which serves the province’s largest city, has an average of 71 customers for every kilometre of distribution line. Hydro One Networks, which predominately serves sparsely populated rural areas, has an average of just 10 customers for every kilometre of distribution line. Ontario’s distribution sector is unusual in lesson process another respect. In Pakistan. The boundaries of many of the LDCs lack any coherence or consistency.

A number of 4 examination analysis essay prewriting utilities serve a patchwork of widely separated areas with noncontiguous boundaries. About Common. They include for lesson process analysis essay prewriting, example, Veridian Connections, Erie Thames Powerlines, and Entegrus Powerlines. Fig. Law Essays. 3 shows the boundaries of one of them, Veridian Connections. In most cases the intervening territory between these non-contiguous areas is served by lesson 4 examination, Hydro One Networks. Figure 3: Veridian Connections Service Areas. At the same time, a number of municipalities have multiple distributors serving residents within their municipal boundaries. For example, residents and businesses in communities such as Ottawa, Hamilton, Chatham-Kent, Sudbury and common Kingston are served by process essay prewriting, either Hydro One Networks or their local utility, depending on intelligence, where they live. Lesson 4 Examination Process Analysis Essay Prewriting. The boundaries of these LDCs are a remnant of the cities’ preamalgamation borders and have not kept pace with change. The status quo also produces examples such as Thornton, a village near Lake Simcoe with 1,000 inhabitants, where the service areas of three separate LDCs converge, namely Hydro One Networks, PowerStream and Innisfil Hydro.

Variation also exists in the ownership of LDCs, but to a much lesser extent. Ontario’s provincial and municipal governments own the vast majority of the province’s distribution utilities. The Ontario government owns Hydro One Inc., which in turn owns three distribution utilities: Hydro One Networks, Hydro One Brampton, and Hydro One Remote Communities. Hydro One Networks also operates the distribution assets that serve the Cat Lake community. There is only one private sector majority LDC owner in Ontario, FortisOntario. FortisOntario owns 100% of three smaller utilities in different parts of the province: Algoma Power; Canadian Niagara Power, which serves customers in Port Colborne, Gananoque and research Fort Erie; and Cornwall Electric. 4 Examination Process Analysis Essay Prewriting. However, FortisOntario and titles two investment firms also hold minority interests in a number of other LDCs. FortisOntario owns 10% of Westario Power, which serves communities in Bruce, Grey and Huron counties, as well as 10% of Rideau St Lawrence Distribution and Grimsby Power. In 2007, Corix Utilities, whose majority shareholder is the British Columbia Investment Management Corporation, bought a 10% interest in Chatham-Kent Energy, now known as Entegrus. A number of lesson process analysis prewriting pension plans have found electricity distributors to be very attractive investments, as the stable rates-of-return they earn from a regulated industry are ideal for their portfolio.

In 2001, Borealis Infrastructure, the criminal infrastructure investment arm of the Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System (OMERS), bought a 10% stake in Enersource, which serves customers in process Mississauga.17 Michael Nobrega, the President and in pakistan CEO of OMERS, has said that the pension plan would like to increase its investment in lesson 4 examination process analysis essay Enersource, and invest in other larger utilities in the province, but the existing transfer tax imposes a financial penalty to do so. About Common Ailments. 18,19. The rest of Ontario’s LDCs are either wholly owned by one of the province’s municipalities, or jointly owned by a number of municipalities. The municipal ownership of LDCs makes itself felt in a number of lesson process analysis essay prewriting ways. Municipal councillors are often appointed to the Boards of the local utility and municipal governments frequently use the dividends they receive to help pay for engineering in humans, municipal services and capital projects. If Ontario was to set out to establish a new electricity distribution system from scratch, it is highly doubtful that it would choose to lesson 4 examination, replicate the current structure. The arrangement of Ontario’s distribution system cannot be found anywhere else in essay engineering in humans Canada.

Many other provinces have only a single electricity distributor that is part of analysis essay prewriting a vertically integrated utility handling both the transmission and our education in pakistan essay the distribution of electricity. Small or Medium Utility. There is further evidence that Ontario’s electricity distribution system is unique, and it comes from the province’s natural gas sector. Ontario’s two main natural gas distributors are Enbridge and Union Gas. 4 Examination Process Analysis. Enbridge has 2 million customers, and Union has 1.4 million customers; both have more customers than the province’s largest electricity distributor, Hydro One Networks. 20. The fragmentation that is the about hallmark of the Ontario distribution system comes at a cost. The Panel’s research and analysis shows that the current approach to 4 examination process analysis prewriting, delivering electricity is costing families, farms and businesses more than it should. Compared to their larger counterparts, smaller LDCs tend to have higher per capita costs for Operations, Maintenance Administration (OMA), which are passed down to customers through rates.

There is a duplication of equipment and facilities among neighbouring LDCs. The large number of LDCs also increases the cost of write two different providing necessary regulation. LDCs have varying capabilities, which affects their capacity to meet evolving customer needs. The key question for the Panel is whether there is a better way to manage the 4 examination analysis prewriting costs of delivering electricity to the consumer in Ontario. As Fig. 5 shows, 22% of what a typical residential customer in Ontario pays for electricity goes towards distribution charges paid to LDCs. Figure 5: Components of a Typical Residential Electricity Bill in Ontario.

Source: Ontario Energy Board. 51% Electricity (Commodity) Charges 22% Distribution Charges 7% Transmission Charges 4% Debt Retirement Charges 4% Regulatory Charges 12% Taxes. *Based on consumption of 800 kWh per month, prices as of November 1, 2012. The province’s distribution sector has been able to avoid a lot of attention from consumers because local distribution costs encompass a smaller proportion of a typical electricity bill. The Panel believes however that there are efficiencies to be found that will ease future costs to thesis about common, consumers. Data show that there have been significant increases in the OMA costs of the distribution sector. The OMA expenses for lesson 4 examination, utilities increased by essay, more than 42% between 2005 and 2011. During the same time the 4 examination process prewriting number of customers served by system, LDCs saw an increase of just 7% and inflation was just 11.6%.21 Moreover, when compared to municipalities, LDCs’ OMA costs increased by 36% between 2005 and 2010, while the total operating costs of 4 examination process analysis essay prewriting municipalities increased by just 26%. 22. The increase in OMA expenses was not spread evenly throughout the sector. When one looks closer at individual LDCs, it is clear that OMA costs per customer are generally higher for law essays uk, smaller LDCs.

As Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 shows, OMA costs follow a general rule: the larger the LDC, the lower the OMA costs per customer. 23. Figure 6: OMA Costs per Customer for Small, Medium and Large LDCs. Source: Ontario Energy Board, 2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors Data. Figure 7: OMA Costs per Customer by LDC Size. Source: Ontario Energy Board, 2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors Data.

To put it another way, in 2011 OMA costs per customer for small LDCs were, on average, 75% higher than for large LDCs. This is in part driven by the fact that small LDCs on lesson process essay prewriting, average have approximately 2.2 full-time employees for two different, every 1,000 customers, while medium and 4 examination process analysis prewriting large LDCs have approximately 1.7 full-time employees for every 1,000 customers. The cost of these additional employees is ultimately borne by the electricity consumer. Even though the operating costs of small LDCs are generally higher, they would be even greater if they incorporated the full cost of distributing low-voltage power to customers. Some LDCs, such as Hydro One Brampton, Hydro Ottawa and PowerStream buy high-voltage power from Hydro One Networks, then run it through their own transformer stations to step down or reduce the voltage of the electricity before sending it to consumers. An Essay Comparing. Some large LDCs and most small and mid-sized LDCs buy their power from lesson 4 examination analysis prewriting, Hydro One Networks but at a lower voltage after it has already been stepped down because they have no transformer stations themselves.

A number of small and mid-sized “embedded” LDCs buy low-voltage power directly from a “host” distributor. These are critical distinctions, as the our education essay small and process mid-sized LDCs are charged for the use of the transformer stations and thesis about other distribution assets required to serve their customers. LDCs do not typically reflect these charges in the standard operating and capital costs reported to the OEB, leading to understated OMA totals, though they do ultimately pass these transformation and low voltage distribution costs on essay, to their customers through a separate recovery mechanism. Nonetheless, the differentiation between large and small LDCs’ OMA costs could be even greater. OMA costs are not the only reason that customers of smaller LDCs generally pay more for their electricity than customers of larger LDCs; there is law essays, also the issue of financing costs. Smaller LDCs usually have to 4 examination essay, pay more to raise money and attract investment. As Fig. 8 shows, smaller LDCs are typically charged higher interest rates and financing charges than LDCs that have a larger asset and customer base.

Larger LDCs generally have access to a wider variety of capital markets, and essay on genetic benefit from the best terms and lowest debt costs. These lower financing costs are passed on to their customers. Figure 8: Average Financing Costs of Long-Term Debt by LDC Size. This difference in financing costs will become only more significant in the future. Utilities will need billions of dollars in additional investment to lesson process, transform themselves into modern LDCs that use up-todate technology and offer higher levels of service to system in pakistan, their customers. Lesson Analysis Essay Prewriting. This investment will be more easily secured by larger LDCs. Currently, LDCs can turn to Infrastructure Ontario (IO) for loans.

This provincial government agency has loaned 22 LDCs more than $200 million for capital projects. 24 It charges LDCs between 3.2% and 3.3% for criminal, a 15-year loan.25 There seems to be little public policy rationale for a government adding to its debt load for this purpose, when private financing is available. It is already a struggle for many small LDCs to meet the demands of renewing their networks and adding state-of-the-art technology and services. Process. Fig. 9 shows that small LDCs have typically focused their expenditures on maintaining their existing asset base, while medium and large LDCs have undertaken more improvements and our education essay capital projects that have added new capacity and services. In addition, larger LDCs tend to reinvest the lesson process analysis majority of their net income back into the business. This pattern of investment is a concern for the future of the electricity system in Ontario, and the families and businesses that depend on it. Unless the thesis entire distribution industry spends the analysis prewriting money needed to essay engineering, modernize its equipment and offer new services, differences will continue to grow between two classes of electricity consumers: those who have the ability to control costs and lesson essay prewriting obtain value-added services from their electricity distributor; and those without access to such services. As a result of the thesis about current structure of the distribution sector, there are more facilities and distribution equipment in Ontario than are needed to efficiently serve electricity customers. Hydro One Networks, for instance, has divided the province into 52 separate service areas for distribution.

Each of these 52 service areas has its own operations centre. Often these centres are just down the road, or in lesson analysis essay the case of Orangeville, just across the research paper on emotional street from the operations centre owned by the local distributor. One of Entegrus Powerlines’ operations centres is just a few kilometres away from the Hydro One Networks’ operations centre in Chatham-Kent. Approximately half of these service areas, including Guelph, Peterborough, Kingston, Arnprior and Kapuskasing, have a Hydro One Networks operations centre as well as an operations centre for lesson analysis essay prewriting, one or more LDCs within their boundaries. The OEB assumed responsibility for regulating the titles mla essays province’s distribution utilities in 1998. One of its roles is to protect consumers by setting just and reasonable rates while providing reasonable financial returns for lesson analysis prewriting, the industry. The OEB’s operating budget for criminal uk, 2012/2013 is $34.97 million dollars.

26 The OEB recovers its costs from the utilities, agencies and lesson 4 examination analysis prewriting retailers it regulates: approximately 80% of its revenue comes from the electricity sector; the other 20% is mla essays, paid for by the natural gas sector. 27. The OEB’s operating costs, which are ultimately born by the consumer, are higher than they need be because of the fragmented nature of Ontario’s distribution sector. The large number of LDCs in Ontario requires more OEB resources to essay prewriting, monitor their operations and adjudicate their rate applications than would otherwise be the case. A review of the cost of uk regulation indicates that customers of 4 examination analysis essay prewriting small LDCs tend to pay more for the regulation of their utilities than customers of large LDCs. According to a 2011 report by Ontario’s Auditor General, the cost of filing a full Cost of Service (COS) rate application for many small and mid-sized LDCs ranges from $100,000 to $250,000. Thesis Common. 28 While the lesson process analysis cost of filing a COS application for larger LDCs can be as much as $1 million or more, 29 the cost per customer is latest research paper on emotional intelligence, actually much lower because of their larger customer base. Lesson 4 Examination Process Analysis. The Auditor General’s report noted that the cost of regulatory scrutiny can consequently be as high as $40 per customer for smaller utilities, while it shrinks to latest research paper intelligence, about $1 per customer for the largest utilities. 30. The province’s distribution workforce is “greying,” and the wave of retirements expected over 4 examination process essay prewriting the coming decade threatens to cause a shortage of skilled labour in the province’s LDCs. Ontario’s LDCs employ a little over 10,200 people.

31 In 2008, a study for The Electricity Sector Council of Canada estimated that about 45% of the electricity distributors’ employees across Canada were between the ages of law essays 45 and 54, putting many of them now, four years later, on the edge of retirement. 32. According to this 2008 study the situation appears most critical for the highly skilled trades that are crucial to the safe and lesson process analysis reliable operation of the law essays electricity grid: 53% of power system operators across the electricity system were aged 45 to 54 years; 42% of power line workers were also in that age group; 74% of their managers and lesson 4 examination analysis essay supervisors were 45 years of age or older. 33. Many of these employees cannot be replaced quickly. A linesperson requires extensive apprenticeship before he or she can work on dangerous high-voltage lines and electricity infrastructure. Electrical engineers need significant training and system essay experience to design and maintain systems. The recent economic downturn has slowed down this oncoming skills shortage.

However, a wave of retirements is inevitable. Lesson Process Essay Prewriting. 34. Consolidation can be of significant assistance in dealing with these workforce issues. Some of the job reductions that will come from the ailments increased efficiency of the sector can be painlessly absorbed by retirements. There would also be a bigger talent pool in lesson process essay larger LDCs, making it easier to criminal, shift employees into process analysis essay prewriting vacant positions without the need for thesis about ailments, new hires. The next few years present a rare opportunity to rationalize the distribution system with a reduced impact on 4 examination process analysis essay, employees. The current distribution system in about Ontario is mainly a product of history. There is a real danger that the heavy hand of history will hold the sector back from 4 examination essay, contributing to our education system essay, the future economic well-being of the province.

LDCs are a crucial part of the process analysis infrastructure that supports and powers the province’s economy. Ontario needs to write two different, have them be creators, and not just observers, of its future economic growth. Around the world, dramatic changes are occurring to the way people generate and 4 examination process essay use electricity. Electricity distributors are having to rethink how they do business in order to stay ahead of the curve. For decades, LDCs were relatively passive players in the electricity sector, delivering electricity that was generated elsewhere. They have been the essay on genetic brokers of essay a one-way flow of energy. The electricity would be produced at a central generation station using hydroelectric, coal, or nuclear energy, where it would then be transmitted, often over long distances, to local communities and titles then distributed to customers. Jurisdictions everywhere are changing how they generate electricity and lesson process analysis how they use it.

Instead of mega-projects, they are building smaller-scale distributed generation closer to where the energy will be consumed. System. In order to reduce the 4 examination essay prewriting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that come from the system essay use of carbonbased fuels, industrialized nations everywhere are turning their minds towards new uses for lesson 4 examination process essay prewriting, electricity, such as emission-free electric vehicles. Electricity distributors will have to play a central role in making all of this work. This promises to be a far more complex and sophisticated role than Ontario’s LDCs are used to currently. At the thesis common same time, many countries are facing a second challenge: they have to replace the aging and outmoded infrastructure they use to distribute electricity. This cannot be done on a simple likefor- like replacement. Electro-mechanical switches that were once the backbone of the transmission and distribution systems are going the way of the typewriter. The future for electricity distribution is computerized and data-driven.

If this were the recording industry, it would be like jumping from process prewriting, LPs to digital MP3 files. Just as this new digital world shook up telephone companies and led to the creation of new consumer services, the advent of computerized switching and digital data in electricity distribution will present challenges for LDCs. Some of the larger ones, such as Hydro One Networks, Horizon Utilities and PowerStream have already taken advantage of the new technology to essay engineering in humans, develop new services for customers. Others are in lesson danger of being left behind. The investment needed to transform the our education in pakistan essay province’s current electricity distribution system into one that uses modern technology to provide new customer services will cost billions of dollars. This investment is lesson analysis prewriting, critical to ensuring the preservation of and the future economic prosperity of sustainable communities throughout Ontario. With every challenge, there is an opportunity. The world of electricity is in humans, changing, and Ontario has the chance to harness these changes so that they enhance the province’s economic competiveness and the quality of life of its people.

This cannot be done without a modern, high-tech distribution system. Ontario now has the opportunity to ensure that all utilities in the province are equipped to meet these future challenges and analysis essay deliver the future to the electricity consumer as efficiently as possible. Ontario’s economic prosperity and the future of mla essays its communities depend upon it. Distributors throughout North America are starting to replace their aging infrastructure with new technology that is being widely described as the Smart Grid. The Smart Grid is a paradigm shift that changes the transmission and distribution of electricity much the way cell phones revolutionized telecommunications.

It uses computers, sensors, automation, digital communications and monitoring to add intelligence to networks whose architecture hasn’t changed substantially since the beginning of the 20 th century. Source: Ontario Ministry of Energy. The Smart Grid gives consumers more control over their electricity usage. The more immediate payoffs however are for the province’s distribution and transmission utilities. The Smart Grid allows them to integrate the variable output that comes from renewable energy sources and accommodate the charging of electric vehicles. Lesson Analysis Essay. When energy storage becomes commercially viable, the movie “smart” distribution networks will be able to handle that as well. Smart Grid switches also allow utilities to create self-healing distribution networks that can quickly reroute power around outages. The urgent need for this transformation was highlighted in the summer of 2012 by the widespread blackouts that hit millions of households in the northeast United States.

Repair crews could not restore power quickly because there were no high-tech sensors to allow them to locate outages and reroute power to isolate the problems. This scenario is less likely at some of Ontario’s more innovative utilities. PowerStream for instance, which serves about lesson 4 examination analysis essay, 333,000 customers in York Region and Simcoe County, is one of the leaders in engineering computerized intelligence into the distribution network. Its new state-of-the-art control centre has led to enough improvement in outage response times that its reliability index now exceeds 99.99%. Trucks are often dispatched before the first customer calls in to complain about an outage. This is just the first step in Ontario.

As the government’s Long Term Energy Plan described it, “we are moving toward a modern, smart electricity system that will help consumers have greater control over their energy usage – even when they’re not at home… and make it easier for consumers to and contrasting two different animals, produce their own power.” 35. The first phase of this new world for lesson 4 examination process analysis prewriting, energy consumers is occurring in the home. It began with the smart meters that are installed in engineering virtually all homes and businesses. Following this, many homeowners applied for and received microFIT contracts that allowed them to install solar panels and wind turbines to feed electricity back into the grid. Next, manufacturers developed stand-alone modules that allow homeowners to turn off lights and small appliances using a smart phone app. The same app can connect with a home thermostat, allowing homeowners to raise or lower the temperature on 4 examination essay, their furnace or central air conditioner. A number of latest research on emotional major appliance manufacturers are now selling washer/dryers and refrigerators with built-in Wi-Fi connectivity.

This functionality allows owners to program the 4 examination process analysis essay appliances and to turn them on-andoff remotely using a home’s Wi-Fi network. These are just the first steps in the making of a “Smart Home.” As the “Smart Home” continues to develop, homeowners will have increasing opportunities to research paper, engage in their own energy management with easy-to-understand graphic displays of their moment-to-moment energy usage; program furnaces and lesson 4 examination analysis prewriting air conditioners from anywhere that has the internet; and instruct fridges and dryers to reduce consumption during periods of high prices. They will also be able to use energy they generate from their own solar panels and heat pumps to power the write an essay and contrasting house, feed back into the grid, or charge an electric vehicle. As the lesson process essay prewriting number of electric vehicles increase, they will have a number of significant impacts on the distribution system. They will not only increase the consumption of electricity but also put new pressure on the network’s reliability; an electric vehicle with a quick-charge capability may draw the same amount of electricity as a single-family home.

Electric vehicles are not just a mode of transportation, but in the future they could also be storage devices. This would require an unprecedented sophistication in our education system the distribution network. Owners could charge their vehicles overnight using lower-cost power, drive it to work, and sell the energy they do not need to return home back into the grid at higher prices during peak demand periods. There is a new equation for delivering electricity to the customer. Instead of relying on large generating stations and transmitting the power over long distances, much smaller generators are being connected directly to distribution systems. Utilities around the world have found this an appealing alternative when faced with community opposition to large transmission lines.

Distributed energy comes in lesson analysis essay many shapes and in pakistan sizes: While the distributed energy of 4 examination essay today is renewable energy, in the future it will likely include energy storage. The increase in renewable energy generation has presented a challenge for many LDCs in law essays uk Ontario. Lesson 4 Examination Process Analysis. Wind-power and solar-power generation took off in Ontario after the Ontario government introduced the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) and microFIT programs, which provide set prices for the production of renewable energy. This began changing the research paper on emotional intelligence traditional one-way flow of electricity from central generating stations such as Niagara Falls or the Darlington nuclear station into 4 examination process a more decentralized, intermittent two-way flow of mla essays electricity. Distribution companies now have to adjust to essay prewriting, fluctuating power flows and changes in voltage. Many LDCs have found it difficult to connect FIT and microFIT projects because they have outmoded systems that were designed for one-way energy flows. The problem is a critical one for research paper on emotional intelligence, the distribution sector, because the Long-Term Energy Plan forecasts an increase of approximately 9,000 megawatts (MW) in renewable power (excluding renewable power from hydroelectric) between 2010 and 2030.

36. This increase in renewable energy is just one aspect of a larger trend towards the lesson 4 examination process analysis decentralization of the power supply. Distributed generation would see smaller, cleaner sources of generation that reduce communities’ dependence on power transmitted over long distances from large, centralized power plants. Distributed generation includes other “close-to-load” technologies, such as combined heat and power (CHP) and research paper district energy, which are expected to increasingly provide an alternative to the conventional generation/transmission/distribution paradigm. Further off, but still expected, are improvements in energy storage. Wide-scale storage will fundamentally change the lesson 4 examination process analysis essay economics of electricity production, as it will allow the stockpiling of energy that previously had to be consumed as soon as it was produced.

High engineering and construction costs currently stand in the way of extensive adoption of essay energy storage, but technologies are improving. Like distributed generation, energy storage is ideal for local communities. Generation and consumption are not the only things that are changing in the energy world; so is the energy consumer. It used to lesson, be said that people just wanted the certainty that lights would go on when they turned on the switch. This is no longer the case.

The new computerized networks are giving consumers power and choice they never had before. Instead of being passive consumers, many want to have increased control over the electricity they use. A recent study has shown there is a new emerging diversity of consumers with different needs and profiles. The consulting company, Accenture, recently published a report, Actionable Insights for the New Energy Consumer . Accenture proposes that there are now four broad types of electricity consumers: 37. Consumers who want predictability, with a consistent, stable bill.

Consumers who want the lowest possible price. Consumers who use the latest technology to law essays, control their consumption. Consumers who were willing to pay more for renewable energy. Accenture suggests these last two consumer groups, the “Save Time” and “Save the Planet” customers will grow in importance over time, as they are found more often in the 18 to 34 age groups. 4 Examination Process Essay. As Accenture points out “more than ever, consumers are seeking added value, personal connection and criminal law essays products and services that align with their lifestyles – all of which go beyond the 4 examination process essay traditional energy experience.” 38. New electricity consumers take the same approach to energy that they take to everything else they buy. They are demanding more from the thesis common ailments products and services they purchase.

If they are not satisfied, they will go elsewhere. Tomorrow’s LDCs must adapt to increased competition from other service providers such as telephone and 4 examination process analysis essay prewriting cable companies if they hope to satisfy changing customer desires. They must master the new technologies and ways of doing business if they hope to survive as important players in the energy world. There is a new era of electrification looming, and essay LDCs have to lesson 4 examination process analysis essay prewriting, adapt, not just for their own sakes, but for research on emotional intelligence, their customers’ benefit as well. LDCs need to be an active contributor to an electricity system that will enhance the future competiveness of the provincial economy, and provide a firm foundation for sustainable communities. From the outset, the Panel’s mandate required that it not just address the status quo, but also position LDCs so they can flourish a decade from now and, in lesson 4 examination analysis doing so, enhance the economic competitiveness of the province. There will be increased demands for service, and increased requirements for investment to renew and transform the distribution network. Any electricity distributor of the future will need to meet a number of objectives if it is to serve its customers in criminal the new era of lesson 4 examination prewriting electricity distribution.

The very idea of an LDC is going to change. When Ontario’s distributors were born, they were the hightech companies of their age and helped transform the economy. A lot has changed since then, but not in the distribution sector. If Alexander Graham Bell were alive today, he would not recognize the telephone he invented. Thomas Edison on the other hand, the father of the light bulb and electricity distribution, would feel quite at home with the about current use of his inventions. Electricity distribution utilities are now facing a difficult challenge. 4 Examination Process Essay Prewriting. Will they be able to movie mla essays, transform themselves into modern high-tech energy companies? Some have already started down that road.

James Rogers, the Chair, President and 4 examination analysis essay CEO of Duke Energy, the largest electricity utility in North America, describes Duke as “a high-tech company disguised as a utility.” 39. This future is not that far away; parts of it are already here. If people look closely, they can see glimpses of what the electricity distributor of the future will look like. The new era of electrification will involve more efficient utilities, with a stronger capital base that will enable them to modernize their equipment and have a renewed focus on the consumer. Customer service is in humans, being revolutionized around the world.

Businesses know that good service brings added value to the customer and can establish a lasting relationship that will return dividends to process analysis essay, the business in the future. To start with, all electricity consumers should be able to thesis common ailments, access immediate and responsive service from their LDC, whether it is a large utility or a small one. Lesson 4 Examination Process Analysis. Yet many smaller utilities have been slow to adopt the provision of 24-hour service response. Most of them do not have 24/7 control rooms to monitor and movie titles mla essays control their networks. There is a varying capacity among LDCs to adopt new practices. It is fair to say that innovations in customer service come from larger utilities more often than smaller ones. Two of the province’s larger utilities have used the lesson comprehensive digital data they have obtained to develop new services that bring added value for the customer. Hydro One Networks has a Geographic Information System (GIS) that gives it data on the location of essay on genetic engineering all of the lesson 4 examination process analysis poles, transformers and equipment on its distribution network. It has used this information to build a smart-phone app that not only tells customers the location of a power outage, but how many people are affected, whether crews are on site, and when power will be restored.

At the end of October 2012, 30,550 customers of Hydro One Networks had downloaded the app. 40 Horizon Utilities, serving Hamilton and St. Catherines, has pioneered efforts in “energy mapping.” In a pilot project with the Ontario Power Authority (OPA), it is combining customer data from smart meters with information obtained from the Municipal Property Assessment Corporation on a home’s size, date of construction, energy type, air conditioning, and whether it has a finished basement and a swimming pool.41 That allows Horizon Utilities to identify customers who stand to our education essay, benefit the analysis prewriting most from energy conservation programs. The aim is to develop a best practice that any LDC in Ontario can adopt. 42. As Chapter 1 has shown, the distribution sector has plenty of room to moderate its costs for delivering electricity. Some smaller utilities have realized this and have developed ways to increase their efficiency that do not involve consolidation. The Cornerstone Hydro Electric Concepts Association (CHEC) is a group of essay 12 LDCs scattered from 4 examination, Prescott in eastern Ontario to movie titles mla essays, Goderich in the west, and lesson analysis prewriting north to Huntsville. CHEC’s smallest member has 3,441 customers, while its largest has 15,723 customers. 43 Members of the CHEC Group have reduced their costs by thesis common, jointly developing conservation and lesson process prewriting demand management (CDM) programs, sharing regulatory costs, and jointly purchasing smart meters and consulting services.

While the CHEC Group has achieved savings, the co-operative model is not stable enough to be used as a template for research on emotional intelligence, the transformation of the process analysis distribution sector. For one thing, participation is voluntary; some CHEC members have stayed out of one or more related back-office arrangements. This reduces the on genetic potential cost savings. Lesson 4 Examination Process Analysis Essay. Secondly, CHEC’s largest member, Collus Power, has entered into criminal law essays uk a partnership with PowerStream, to get the advantages that come from linking with a larger, innovative utility. There has been another more commonly seen method for increasing efficiency, and that is prewriting, through the merger or acquisition of nearby utilities. The evidence shows that these consolidations have resulted in significant cost savings and efficiencies: 44. Veridian Connections, 1999: Veridian was created though the consolidation of the three neighbouring distribution utilities in system Pickering, Ajax and essay prewriting Clarington. In the first three years of operation, Veridian reportedly achieved savings of 13% in OMA expenses.

PowerStream, 2004: PowerStream was created in 2004 with the voluntary merger of the distribution utilities of Markham and Vaughan and thesis the acquisition of Richmond Hill’s LDC. That consolidation brought about $6.9 million in annual cost savings Veridian Connections’ purchase of Scugog and lesson analysis essay prewriting Gravenhurst Hydro, 2005: As a result of the acquisition, the total cost of operating, maintaining and criminal uk administering the lesson process analysis prewriting combined utility decreased from $21.1 million to $18.8 million, an about ailments 11% reduction. This works out to savings of almost $40 per customer per year. Chatham Kent Hydro’s Purchase of Middlesex Power Distribution, 2005: The consolidation of each utility’s administrative functions resulted in annual savings of $450,000. Middlesex Power Distribution later acquired and lesson 4 examination consolidated Dutton Hydro and Newbury Power with its own operations.

In 2012, the operations of Chatham Kent Hydro and Middlesex Power Distribution were merged into thesis common ailments one new utility, Entegrus Powerlines. Entegrus Powerlines says the consolidations brought about annual savings of lesson $1.3 million. “The experience of Entegrus confirms that significant savings, specifically in thesis the administrative functions, can be achieved through mergers and acquisitions.” 45 PowerStream’s merger with Barrie Hydro, 2009: The two utilities achieved $6.2 million in annual cost savings through their consolidation. Residential electricity consumers in process prewriting Barrie typically saw distribution rate reductions of 11.5% in 2010 and, according to PowerStream, were expected to see another 5% decrease in 2013. The transition costs of implementing the merger equalled about one year of cost savings. It is clear from the our education results of past mergers and acquisitions that further consolidation is a way to lesson 4 examination process analysis essay, achieve added efficiencies. The added heft of these larger distributors will also have an additional benefit. It will make it easier for LDCs to attract the investment that all utilities are going to need in the future. As if the ongoing challenge of efficiently delivering electricity and energy services is not enough, LDCs are facing an additional financial challenge: persuading the consumer to pay for the renewal and transformation of the distribution networks upon which they depend. As the province’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress noted in its 2011 annual report, some of the money will be needed to make up for write comparing, past under-investment: “Ontario businesses have under invested in machinery, equipment and software relative to process essay prewriting, their counterparts in the United States, so that the law essays capital base that supports workers in Ontario is not as modern as that of their counterparts in the peer states.” 46. Many LDCs in older downtowns will have to spend billions of dollars to upgrade their assets in order to maintain safety and 4 examination process essay reliability.

Utilities everywhere will also need to invest heavily in innovative technology in order to meet the challenges of the essay in humans future. In an estimate released in April 2011, the lesson analysis essay Conference Board of in pakistan Canada predicted that Ontario electricity distribution companies would need to invest $16.6 billion over the next 20 years to maintain their current networks, and an additional investment of lesson process analysis essay close to $4 billion to grow and serve new customers, new requirements, and new territories. Essay On Genetic In Humans. 47. The Conference Board of Canada report acknowledges that this is only a preliminary picture of the financial demands facing distributors. The report anticipates three additional pressures will add to its $20.6 billion estimate of lesson process analysis essay needed distribution investment.

48 The first is the additional investments that will be required to connect more distributed generation and our education system in pakistan renewable energy. 4 Examination Process Essay. A second pressure is the investments needed for the development of a Smart Grid. The third is the changing electricity requirements that come from new technologies such as electric vehicles. Despite this need for titles mla essays, new investment, LDCs are restricted in lesson 4 examination process analysis essay their ability to attract new financing. Municipal governments face legal barriers that make it difficult for them to criminal law essays uk, make additional investments in the LDCs they own.

Additionally, there is a significant barrier to attracting private investment. If the lesson process utility sells or transfers assets to a private investor, a transfer tax of up to 33% is paid to the province on the fair market value of those assets. While the transfer tax does serve an important function of protecting payments made by distributors in lieu of taxes (PILs), it is also a major deterrent for common, private sector investment in the sector. The mantra for modern business is “Innovate or Die.” In its 2011 annual report, the Ontario government’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress said improving innovation has to be the province’s priority for the coming decade: “When economists observe that productivity in Canada and Ontario is lagging, they are seeing the results of a sub-standard innovation record among our businesses.” 49. The Smart Grid is just the beginning of what can be done with the digital sensing that will soon be the backbone of all distribution networks. Similar computerized intelligence is already being transferred to the home, allowing a thermostat, for instance, to lesson 4 examination analysis prewriting, sense when a family has left the home and reduce the level of heating or air-conditioning in order to save money.

A number of LDCs say it can be difficult to be innovative in the current regulatory environment. They cite a recent OEB decision that prevented Guelph Hydro from recovering the costs of a pilot program for mla essays, electric vehicles, or the costs of including additional technology in its smart meters to enhance communication with in-home displays and appliances. Process Analysis Essay. 50 While the OEB said it might allow the thesis common recovery of the additional smart meter costs in process essay the future, the decision has persuaded many LDCs that innovation is too risky. The expectations and requirements of the LDCs and the OEB need to be aligned if innovation is to be encouraged in Ontario’s distribution sector. The results of previous consolidations have shown that a reduction in the number of utilities can result in significant cost savings. It is important to acknowledge however that the consolidations of the past may understate the extent of possible savings in the future. Our Education. That is because many of the lesson 4 examination process analysis essay consolidations were accomplished by thesis common ailments, amalgamating two utilities that were distances apart and did not have any adjoining boundaries. Four of the five examples of lesson essay prewriting consolidations cited in this chapter did not eliminate any boundaries.

The existing boundaries were maintained; only the research administration and lesson 4 examination process essay operations were merged. Additional savings can be achieved when the boundaries themselves are erased, consolidating neighbouring utilities into latest on emotional one new larger LDC with one contiguous boundary. Boundaries in fact are a problem in the current makeup of the distribution sector. There are too many of them. Boundaries are an obstacle because they inhibit the lesson 4 examination process analysis prewriting efficient use of capital and resources. Essay On Genetic. With fewer boundaries between utilities, they would be able to lesson analysis, install new switches and sub-stations so that they serve a wider area. In addition, physical plants can be rationalized, eliminating the our education system essay need for multiple control rooms in essay favour of one advanced system control centre with computerized monitoring and controls. There will also be fewer instances of the oft-heard complaint that crews from one LDC must pass through another LDC’s service area in order to attend to its own customers, requiring trucks to drive further than what ought to be necessary – a clear example of inefficiency. Fewer boundaries and fewer LDCs will also mean better planning. Currently there is a perverse incentive for a utility to build up its own capital base, rather than share equipment owned by another utility. LDCs earn revenue in part based on the assets they own.

As a result, the Panel has heard of instances where some LDCs have found it in their interest to install new equipment at their boundaries instead of leveraging assets owned by an adjacent utility. Research Paper Intelligence. While it may be in the distributor’s interest to undertake such practices, it is clearly not to the customer’s benefit. The OEB’s recently released Renewed Regulatory Framework for Electricity concludes that LDCs will be expected to file evidence in rate and leave to construct proceedings that demonstrates that regional issues have been appropriately considered. 51 This requirement is itself an analysis essay prewriting acknowledgement that the fragmented nature of the distribution system in Ontario is an impediment to the cost-effective planning and in pakistan development of electricity infrastructure in the province. Prewriting. A more practical and workable solution would be to have fewer utilities to deal with. A new world of electricity distribution is emerging, and essay on genetic it will look a lot different from what Ontarians see today.

In many ways, the change has been galvanized by the development of Smart Grid technology. The digital nature of lesson 4 examination process modern electricity distribution has now made its way into the sensors and controls that are part of the “Smart Home.” The next steps will include the adoption of electric vehicles, the spread of energy storage and an increase in distributed energy. Over the next decade, Ontarians will be changing the way they generate, manage and consume electricity. This presents a big challenge for the province’s LDCs, the biggest challenge many have ever faced. Ontario’s LDCs will need to adopt new ways of doing business if they are to meet the needs of the new electricity consumer. The Panel does not believe the current structure of the movie titles province’s distribution system will allow it to meet this challenge. The LDC of the future must have a stronger balance sheet, and lesson prewriting the capacity to adopt new technology and movie offer advanced services in a cost-effective manner.

This requires “shoulder-toshoulder, robust, well-resourced, and efficient LDCs,” to lesson 4 examination process analysis essay, borrow a phrase from the Electricity Distributors Association (EDA). 52. The Panel is titles mla essays, supporting consolidation not as an end, but as a means to lesson process analysis essay prewriting, an end. Thesis About Ailments. The current fragmented nature of Ontario’s electricity distribution system, with its large number of lesson analysis small distributors, is a barrier to the innovation that is needed in the sector, and that its customers deserve. It is also an research obstacle in the way of the most cost-effective delivery of electricity. The Panel agrees with what The Conference Board of 4 examination process Canada said in its 2012 report, Needed: A Comprehensive Growth Strategy for Ontario: “…Ontario firms and organisations will have to step up their own commitments to strengthen productivity growth and titles mla essays competiveness. They can enhance their commitment to research and development in the province and work to build an innovation culture within organizations of lesson 4 examination process analysis prewriting all sizes and types, one that places high value on new ideas and constant refinements to products and process.” 53. There is a strong consensus in the industry that consolidating the province’s LDCs will not only encourage innovation but also result in a less costly and more efficient delivery of electricity. Our Education System. This is the view of the analysis Ontario Energy Association: “…now is the ideal time for the Ontario government to move decisively to eliminate costly inefficiencies in the LDC sector to the benefit of ratepayers, and unlock the on genetic value of each company for its shareholder.

Rationalization of LDCs would bring economic benefit to all Ontarians – especially important given the province’s fiscal challenges and the broader economic landscape.” 54. A number of electricity customers share this opinion. In its presentation, the Retail Council of Canada (Council) said the current distribution system “causes extra administrative costs for retailers in multiple service areas, costs that have no return on investment.” 55 The Council also said it “increases the cost and administrative burden of participation in lesson 4 examination process distributor-level conservation programs.” 56 Many LDCs and stakeholders who made submissions or appeared before the Panel also felt that Ontario could be better served by a smaller number of larger utilities. This is supported not just by the experience of our education system in pakistan prior mergers and acquisitions in the Ontario distribution sector, but also by numerous international studies. A 2009 publication from Applied Economics found that large utilities could be more efficient than their smaller counterparts. Process Analysis Essay. It recommended that countries with a large number of small utilities allow mergers in order to exploit potential gains in efficiency. 57. A similar study published in 2007 in The Energy Journal stated a 16% reduction in latest on emotional expenses could be achieved by merging smaller utilities into large ones. 58 A Spanish study in 2009 by prewriting, the Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Applicada found that company size is an important issue in the evolution of the industry’s productivity, and that technological advances can bring more benefits to larger firms than smaller ones.

59,60. While most of the existing academic studies support the our education system argument for consolidation, the research is not unanimous. A small number of reports examined by the Panel have found there were no cost savings or substantial economies of scale to be gained from creating a number of larger electricity distributors. Lesson 4 Examination Process. 61 However, the analysis of the on emotional experience in Ontario done by the Panel shows that there are cost savings that can be achieved. In Ontario, the report of The Commission on 4 examination analysis prewriting, the Reform of Ontario’s Public Services supports the consensus view that consolidation is paper on emotional, a way to lesson 4 examination analysis essay, reduce costs. The Commission, led by economist Don Drummond, recommended that the province “Consolidate Ontario’s 80 local distribution companies (LDCs) along regional lines to create economies of scale. Latest Research Paper Intelligence. Reducing the $1.35 billion spent on operations, maintenance and administrative costs for Ontario’s LDCs would result in lesson process essay prewriting direct savings on criminal law essays, the delivery portion of the electricity bill.” 62.

In its presentation to 4 examination, the Panel the EDA, the voice of the province’s LDCs, recognized that the law essays consolidation of fragmented service areas was one of the ways to improve the efficiency of electricity distribution. “The efficiency of lesson process analysis essay prewriting distribution utility and industry structure is affected by at least three important factors. Write An Essay Comparing And Contrasting Two Different. The first is contiguity. The wires business requires a single utility to serve all customers within a contained area and for this reason service franchises have prevailed since the early years of analysis essay prewriting electrification.” The second and third factors cited by the EDA were the comparing scale and scope of a utility’s operations. 63. The EDA recommended the lesson process essay Panel consider a series of changes that would end with the creation of shoulder-to-shoulder, robust, well-resourced and efficient LDCs: “One of the principles which underlies this model is the potential for thesis ailments, gains arising out of economies of contiguity. The technology of analysis electricity distribution is paper on emotional, such that it is more efficient to service customers that populate a contiguous self-contained area.” 64. As noted in Chapter 1, the structure of the electricity distribution sector in Ontario is unique. No other jurisdiction in Canada has the number or share of small LDCs that are evident in Ontario’s distribution sector. While there was a general understanding that the status quo was no longer appropriate, there was also a surprising amount of agreement on what should replace the currently fragmented distribution system: a dramatically reduced number of LDCs. The Panel heard a broad range of proposals on the ideal number of utilities, and as well their optimum size.

One stakeholder suggested that only lesson 4 examination process analysis prewriting one distribution utility was needed to serve the entire province. Others suggested there should be 6 to 7 LDCs, each with 500,000 to and contrasting two different, 800,000 customers apiece. Another participant felt Ontario should have 8 regional distributors centered on lesson 4 examination analysis essay prewriting, an urban hub, each with at law essays least 500,000 customers and a rate base of at least $1 billion. In the end, Panel members agreed with this general direction. So it is recommending the consolidation of Ontario LDCs into 8 to 12 regional distributors that are large enough to deliver improved efficiency and enhanced customer focus, while at the same time maintaining connections with local communities. 65. The Panel’s recommendations will not apply to all LDCs in Ontario. On the basis of process analysis their unique constitutional status, the three First Nations’ utilities in northeast Ontario are not covered by research on emotional intelligence, the Panel’s recommendations , unless they decide otherwise. The three non-rate regulated utilities in process analysis prewriting Ontario, Cornwall Electric, Dubreuil Lumber, and law essays uk the assets serving the lesson 4 examination process analysis essay prewriting Cat Lake community will also be exempt unless they choose to join in. Cornwall Electric is exempt because it buys its electricity from Quebec; Dubreuil because it operates mainly on private property; and the distribution assets that serve the Cat Lake community are exempt because they are under the control of Hydro One Networks under an interim electricity distribution licence.

Hydro One Remote Communities will also remain separate, as it services off-grid communities in the north. The new regional distributor will be anchored by one or more urban centres and will have to provide service to customers in its territory regardless of the costs of service. Northern Ontario needs to be treated differently because of the smaller number of customers spread out over longer distances. There should be two regional distributors in the north, one serving the northeast part of engineering Ontario, and 4 examination process essay prewriting the other serving the northwest. This would leave the rest of the province to be served by between 6 and 10 regional distributors. Of the on emotional existing LDCs, the Panel expects only one, Toronto Hydro, will remain unchanged as it is already large enough and lesson 4 examination has contiguous boundaries. It can thus be considered as one of the 6 to 10 regional distributors in research paper on emotional intelligence southern Ontario. Process. Each new regional distributor in southern Ontario should have a minimum of 400,000 customers. The Panel feels that the existing LDCs should be encouraged to voluntarily merge their distribution assets and create the new regional distributors within two years. While there was intense consolidation and sale activity in the years immediately following the passage of the ECA, the situation has been relatively stagnant in recent years. The Panel anticipates that its report will spark new activity in the industry as LDCs explore consolidating with each other.

Since consolidation is a proven method to curb costs, ensure the broadest adoption of technological innovation and make the necessary funding available at the lowest price, inaction is not in the best interests of the consumers or the province. The Panel believes that establishing the boundaries of the new regional distributors is best left to the leadership of the distribution sector. On Genetic Engineering. However boundaries should follow the existing structure and architecture of the distribution system, and lesson 4 examination process analysis essay prewriting take into account the existing Hydro One Networks service areas. The Panel understands that some stakeholders might prefer a more tangible depiction of what the on genetic in humans new map of distribution might look like. Lesson 4 Examination Process Analysis. So, for discussion purposes only, the Panel has prepared a map (Fig. 12) to illustrate what the future could look like with 8 regional distributors. Figure 12: Illustration of law essays uk 8 Regional Distributors 66. Map Schematic – 8 Regions. North West, North East, South East, East GGH, Central, Toronto, West GGh, South West. While the eventual number of utilities remains to be determined, there are additional principles the Panel feels are essential if the province is to have an electricity distribution sector that supports the 4 examination essay prewriting economic well-being of its citizens. Exempted utilities aside, there should only be regional distributors.

The current situation where a smaller utility is embedded in, or surrounded by, the territory of another distributor should end. The new regional distributors must have boundaries that are contiguous and stand shoulder-to-shoulder. There should be no across-the-board sale of our education Hydro One Inc.’s distribution assets (of its Networks or Brampton subsidiaries). The creation of the new system of 4 examination process analysis prewriting regional distributors should be facilitated by the merger of its assets with those of existing distributors. As the our education in pakistan shareholder of Hydro One Inc., the government benefits from the revenue streams it receives from its distribution businesses. Given current market conditions, it is lesson, unlikely that the sale price obtained for its distribution assets would be able to common, pay down a sufficient amount of lesson process essay public debt to criminal law essays uk, be worthwhile. 67 A sale of Hydro One Brampton and Hydro One Networks’ distribution assets would almost certainly hurt the province’s fiscal position.

The recommendation to lesson 4 examination analysis essay, merge and not sell Hydro One Networks’ distribution assets is in titles mla essays line with a recommendation from the 4 examination Drummond Commission: “Do not partially or fully divest any or all of the province’s government business enterprises – Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation, Liquor Control Board of Ontario, Ontario Power Generation and Hydro One – unless the write and contrasting two different net, long-term benefit to Ontario is lesson essay prewriting, considerable and can be clearly demonstrated through comprehensive analysis.” 68. The Panel is convinced that consolidating the criminal applicable rate-regulated LDCs into a smaller number of considerably larger utilities will significantly curb costs and generate benefits for the industry. The following are realistic efficiency targets that the Panel believes are achievable by the new regional distributors: In the first ten years after consolidation, $1.7 billion in analysis costs at net present value can be removed from the electricity distribution sector. Latest Research On Emotional Intelligence. 69 After allowing for $500 million in transaction and transition costs, it is process analysis essay prewriting, expected that cost savings of $1.2 billion at net present value would be achieved across the essay engineering in humans sector over the first ten years for the benefit of customers and lesson analysis essay prewriting shareholders. This would be equivalent to approximately $70 per year for every electricity customer by the end of the tenth year. The benefits will largely come from a reduction in the OMA expenses of LDCs.

Regional distributors should be able to essay engineering, reduce sector-wide administration costs by 4 examination process analysis prewriting, 20% when compared to a projection for criminal, the current, unconsolidated sector. Efforts to increase administrative efficiency should focus on customer care, billing and 4 examination analysis essay collections, facilities and facilities maintenance and criminal uk administrative salaries and expenses. Similarly, reductions in operations and maintenance costs would amount to 2%. Analysis. Benefits accrue from curbing operating expenses, the number of service and essay control centres, and lesson analysis essay prewriting supervision and engineering costs. Consolidation will allow LDCs to avoid $1.3 billion in infrastructure investment over the first ten years resulting in a 5% reduction in depreciation and return on capital when compared to latest on emotional intelligence, the continuation of the status quo – worth over $300 million in present terms. Lesson 4 Examination Essay Prewriting. The new regional distributors will be able to utilize their existing equipment such as switches and sub-stations to serve a wider area more efficiently. In addition, duplicate service and control centres can be eliminated.

There will also be improved economies of an essay two different animals scale for lesson 4 examination analysis essay, facilities and paper transportation, and for advanced computer software such as customer information systems. Fig. 13 and Fig. 14 illustrate the source and 4 examination process prewriting timeframe for costs savings in the ten years following consolidation versus a projection of the status quo. The savings will continue to increase beyond ten years, with relatively more of the system savings accruing from lesson 4 examination analysis prewriting, avoided infrastructure investments and the resulting reductions in movie the regulated asset base over time. Consolidation will not just reduce costs, but it will also enable the province’s LDCs to lesson 4 examination analysis prewriting, modernize their operations and two different animals regain their status as the high-tech companies they were at their birth. The new regional distributors will be able to adopt a renewed focus on customer service. This can include modern operation centres that offer 24/7 customer service throughout the province and enhance reliability using Smart Grid technology. Figure 13: Estimated Benefits from LDC Consolidation (First 10 Years) Figure 14: Breakdown of lesson process analysis essay $1.7 Billion (Net Present Value) in Cost Savings. 64% – Administration 13% – Cost of Capital 18% – Capital Expenditures 5% – Operations and our education Maintenance Larger distribution utilities will have the resources and 4 examination essay prewriting capacity to deal with the paper impending changes in electricity generation and consumption, including distributed generation, energy storage and lesson 4 examination process essay prewriting electric vehicles.

It will also allow them to more quickly adopt the Smart Grid technology that will be the foundation for the sector’s future development. They will have the capacity to adopt and share best practices from other utilities, not just in Ontario but from around the word. The innovation seen in Hydro One Networks’ outage app, or Horizon Utilities’ energy mapping cannot be as efficiently developed and utilized by smaller utilities. Larger, better-resourced distributors will be able to use enhanced asset management methods to an essay comparing and contrasting two different animals, focus replacement or upgrades on assets most at risk. They will be able to 4 examination analysis essay prewriting, track the age and condition of equipment, and ensure that improvements are made where they are most needed. This will increase reliability and write an essay comparing two different reduce the risk of power outages. 4 Examination Process Analysis Essay Prewriting. Larger regional distributors will be better equipped to on genetic in humans, reduce their line losses. Right now distributors lose about process essay prewriting, 4% of the energy they purchase due to technical matters and common theft. 70 Technical line losses are caused primarily by magnetic losses in transformers and by lesson analysis essay prewriting, the electrical resistance inherent to sending lower-voltage electricity over criminal law essays uk long distances.

Line loss has historically been higher for smaller LDCs with older equipment than for process essay prewriting, larger newer ones, and on genetic engineering in humans this cost is passed on directly to consumers. Regional Planning will be easier. As noted previously, the OEB’s Renewed Regulatory Framework for Electricity concludes that LDCs will be expected to file evidence in rate and leave to construct proceedings that demonstrates that regional issues have been appropriately considered and, where applicable, addressed in lesson 4 examination essay the utility’s capital budget or infrastructure investment proposal. After consolidation, a lot of the movie work of planning the optimal investment in infrastructure at the lowest possible cost will be done as a matter of lesson process analysis routine by criminal, the new regional distributor. Regional distributors will be better positioned to lesson, take a leadership role in innovation and promote conservation and engineering demand management (CDM). This is not currently possible because many small LDCs do not have a strong enough balance sheet, making them naturally risk averse. A stronger financial balance sheet will provide distribution utilities with more resources and flexibility to innovate and develop a range of new services that have an enhanced customer focus. There will be savings in regulatory costs. With a smaller number of utilities, there will be fewer rate applications for the OEB to process and a reduced number of the other regulatory filings that are required by the OEB. Less diversity among LDCs will also allow the lesson process prewriting OEB to develop a more focused regulatory framework. These changes will have two benefits: It will allow the comparing OEB to streamline operations and reduce its cost of regulation, thus saving customers money; and since the per customer cost of regulatory filings is less for large utilities than small ones, consumers will receive a second, more immediate benefit.

Financing costs will be lower. As previously noted in Chapter 1, larger LDCs generally find it easier than smaller utilities to attract capital, often because they have gone through the discipline of being rated by a credit agency. In general, smaller utilities have not found it worthwhile to undertake this activity. The cost of capital will be increasingly important in the future, as the electricity distribution sector requires billions of lesson 4 examination dollars of additional infrastructure investment to renew and transform its distribution networks. Ontario needs to transform its distribution sector if it wants it to help and not hinder future economic growth. The Panel believes a system of much larger regional distributors will deliver increased efficiency and economies of scale, and create a potential for innovation and thesis about ailments customer focus that is currently lacking in lesson 4 examination essay the industry as a whole. This will require a change in the attitudes and policies of a number of the criminal law essays uk players currently involved in the province’s electricity sector. Though it must lead the way, the task of changing the status quo does not rest solely with the lesson 4 examination process analysis prewriting provincial government. Everyone, from the LDCs and municipalities to the provincial government and the OEB, must work together to ensure this new vision of distribution takes root and flourishes in Ontario. Substantial efficiencies will not occur unless Hydro One Networks is movie, part of the solution. Lesson Essay Prewriting. This single distribution company serves 25% of the 4.8 million electricity customers in Ontario.

Without its cooperation, it will be impossible to realize the savings that will result from essay in humans, contiguous, shoulderto- shoulder regional distributors. The Panel recommends that the Ontario government, as the shareholder of 4 examination essay Hydro One Inc., should give it clear, unambiguous direction to lead and engage in fair, market-value based discussions with LDCs in order to create the new regional distributors. Hydro One Inc. should put all of the distribution assets of thesis about common its subsidiaries on the table in essay order to enable transactions that can result in the shoulder-to-shoulder consolidation of the industry as envisioned in Chapter 4. 71. In order to protect their investments, the current owners of the LDCs to be consolidated will receive equity in the new regional distribution utilities in proportion to the valuation of their assets used to essay, create each of the new regional distributors. This will ensure the LDC shareholders’ fiscal positions are not adversely affected by the changes in the distribution sector. Since ownership of the new regional distributors will depend on the assets that were contributed, it is possible that Hydro One Inc. or its subsidiaries could have significant ownership positions in a number of the lesson analysis essay prewriting new regional entities. While some stakeholders argued for mandatory consolidation, others told the Panel that they preferred voluntary consolidation. Common. The Panel’s preference is for 4 examination essay, voluntary consolidation, but action must be swift. The Panel recommends that licence applications of all new regional distributors be submitted to the OEB within two years of the government adopting the thesis ailments recommendations of this report. Even though the Panel believes substantial consolidation can be achieved voluntarily within two years, it also feels immediate action must be taken if this is to succeed.

Therefore, the Panel is recommending that the government appoint a Transition Advisor to monitor the process of consolidation. The Transition Advisor will advise the government on the progress being made, but will not act as a facilitator among LDCs as part of this process. Within six months of the government’s acceptance of the Panel’s recommendations, merging LDCs will provide a Progress Report to lesson process analysis essay, the Transition Advisor. The Progress Report will include evidence of an agreement among the intelligence merging LDCs, such as a Memorandum of Understanding, committing them to work towards consolidation within the lesson 4 examination process prewriting two-year time frame. After receiving a Progress Report, the Transition Advisor may advise LDCs of any conflicts that would inhibit the achievement of the Panel’s vision for the sector, such as mergers that may not result in efficient, contiguous regions, or that may result in stranded service territories.

LDCs may then submit a revised Progress Report based on further negotiations before the our education system in pakistan end of the initial six months. At the end of the analysis six-month period, the Transition Advisor will provide a Status Report to in pakistan essay, the government outlining the 4 examination process analysis essay prewriting progress-to-date on the formation of regional distributors. The Transition Advisor will provide advice on the formation of about ailments contiguous and shoulder-to-shoulder regional distributors. The Transition Advisor will notify the government of mergers that may not result in lesson 4 examination analysis essay efficient, contiguous regions as envisioned in Chapter 4, or that may result in stranded service territories. The Transition Advisor will also report on instances where LDCs have not taken steps to co-operatively create regional distributors. After consideration of the Status Report, if any of the proposed regional distributors need more time to finalize their voluntary agreements, the government may permit them up to write an essay two different animals, three additional months to finish their work. Lesson Essay Prewriting. At the end of this supplementary three-month period, the Transition Advisor will submit a Final Report updating the government on write an essay comparing and contrasting animals, the results. Where it is clear, after consideration of the Transition Advisor’s Status Report, or in 4 examination process essay prewriting the event that the an essay animals government has sanctioned an additional 3 months, the Final Report, that formation of regional distributors cannot be completed through voluntary means, the Panel recommends that the government introduce legislation at that time to lesson analysis essay prewriting, ensure consolidation is successfully completed. Fig. Uk. 15 illustrates the 4 examination essay prewriting actions the Panel is proposing to ensure Ontario’s distribution sector is consolidated within its two-year time frame. * Should voluntary agreements not be arrived at latest research paper on emotional by the drafting of the Status Report, the government may allow an additional 3 months of negotiations or proceed directly to mandatory consolidation.

Legislation would need to analysis prewriting, be drafted regardless during this 3 month period. ** Should voluntary agreements not be arrived at by the drafting of the Final Report, the government should proceed directly to mandatory consolidation. Figure 15: Timeline for Consolidation Illustration. Owners of the LDCs participating in voluntary consolidation will receive shares in the new regional distributors based on the valuation of their assets used to create each of the new regional distributors. LDCs that do not voluntarily agree to a merger and comparing are amalgamated through mandatory mechanisms should have their assets assigned to the new regional distributors assessed at lesson 4 examination process analysis prewriting book value. Utilities that successfully form a voluntary agreement during the common initial six to nine month period, and lesson process prewriting submit a licence application for the new regional distributor to the OEB within two years, should be allowed to our education system, recover their prudent transaction costs, which may include the costs of a third-party facilitator. In order to facilitate consolidation, LDCs involved in lesson any merger should not be required to our education system in pakistan, go through the OEB process for assessing mergers as it is 4 examination process essay prewriting, currently operated.

The Panel is concerned that a regulatory process involving the consolidation of multiple LDCs will be cumbersome and drawn out. Mergers taking place within the write an essay and contrasting two different two-year period for lesson prewriting, voluntary consolidations should be deemed by the province to movie, have delivered a net benefit to customers. Consumers will still be protected, as the OEB will have regulatory oversight over lesson 4 examination process any rate applications filed by distributors in the post-merger period. The new consolidated regional utilities will be able to offer improved efficiency and enhanced services for customers. In previous consolidations, the system in pakistan essay municipal shareholder often kept the prewriting funds that came from the sale of buildings or property that were no longer required by the new utility. The Panel feels the money should stay in the distribution system. Our Education System. Any shareholder gains from the essay disposal of excess utility assets prior to the merger are expected to be reinvested in the regional distributor to strengthen the movie titles mla essays system, and not used for dividends or other non-electricity purposes.

Any ongoing savings from the increased efficiency of the new regional distributors are anticipated to be shared between the shareholder and the customer. Prewriting. As the Panel has heard from many stakeholders that significant capital investment will be required over the coming years, the Panel expects that much of the savings accruing to the shareholder will be reinvested in the electricity distribution system. Many utilities in Ontario have subsidiaries or non-regulated affiliates that provide services beyond the regulated poles and wires business of write and contrasting two different animals electricity distribution. These services include billing for water and wastewater services, construction, solar installation and district energy. When Markham Hydro became part of PowerStream, the City of Markham kept ownership of the utility’s district energy affiliate. Affiliates currently owned by 4 examination process, LDCs are not within the scope of this report. The Panel believes there are two reasons to leave the affiliates out of the process: It will simplify the mergers and eliminate the conflict that might occur when one LDC wants to have its affiliates included as part of the assets they bring to the table, while others want them excluded. Secondly, the Panel feels the an essay and contrasting consolidations that will create the lesson analysis new regional electricity businesses will take the full and uninterrupted attention of the new regional electricity distributors’ managers, and that they should not be distracted by any unregulated business affairs.

Only when the essay sector is fully consolidated should regional distributors begin to establish affiliate businesses. The existing Rural or Remote Rate Protection (RRRP) benefit should be reformed to become a Northern Rural or Remote Rate Protection benefit. Under RRRP, all electricity customers in lesson prewriting Ontario pay a small charge to cushion the high-cost of electricity distribution for hard to on genetic in humans, serve rural or remote customers. In 2012, Hydro One Networks customers who qualify have their distribution service charge reduced by $28.50 a month. The Panel believes the RRRP will no longer be needed in southern Ontario because unlike the present situation, the contiguous, shoulder-to-shoulder regional distributors will have a mix of both urban and rural customers, allowing them to balance urban and 4 examination process rural rates within each region.

This change is about ailments, not expected to affect customers of First Nations’ LDCs, Hydro One Remotes Communities, or qualifying customers in areas of northern Ontario currently covered by the RRRP. The Panel feels that a lot of potential benefits of consolidation could be unleashed by making changes to the governance and management of the essay province’s LDCs. Strengthening managerial capacity was one of the recommendations of the Ontario government’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress. “Strong Management is important for sizing up competitive challenges and threats, assessing consumer behaviour for titles, business opportunities, putting in place the necessary resources and capabilities, and building skills and talents in the organization.” 72. Since 1998, distribution utilities have been incorporated under the OBCA. The Panel feels it is time to treat the province’s LDCs as the commercial enterprises they are; this will require municipal shareholders to adopt best practices in analysis essay the stewardship of the LDC assets in latest research paper on emotional order to ensure strong operating performance. The municipal owners of the province’s LDCs currently face barriers to making loans to the utilities in which they have an interest. This is 4 examination analysis prewriting, a deviation from accepted practice, whereby shareholders of a corporation are responsible for ensuring it is an essay and contrasting two different, adequately capitalized. Essay. The Panel believes the distribution sector should be treated the same as other corporations in comparing and contrasting animals Ontario, and recommends the government eliminate the restrictions that prevent municipalities from making loans to distributors.

Many municipalities hold promissory notes from their LDCs that were taken out at the time of the utilities’ transformation into 4 examination process analysis essay corporations under the titles mla essays OBCA. These notes have frequently continued to bear the higher interest rates that were common at the time. Municipalities should retire the outstanding notes with LDCs that are above market value, or renegotiate them so that they reflect current interest rates. Many stakeholders told the Panel that the current transfer tax acts as a barrier to lesson analysis essay, the consolidation of the paper on emotional intelligence province’s distribution sector. 4 Examination Analysis Essay Prewriting. The Panel recommends that Ontario enter into discussions with the federal government on a tax agreement that would facilitate the common ailments removal of the transfer tax on the sale of LDC assets. The Panel believes that it is important to ensure that new sources of capital be made available to the regional distributors so they can meet the funding requirements that are outlined in this report. The Panel expects that the removal of the transfer tax will encourage pension plans to 4 examination analysis, invest in distribution utilities. The investment by pension funds will not only help Ontario’s utilities meet their financing needs, but also provide a source of two different stable and secure income to the funds and their pensioners, and help pension funds deal with the market challenges they currently face. Investing in lesson Ontario’s distribution utilities should, for Ontario-based pension plans, be a valuable alternative to investing in our education system utilities in other countries. Infrastructure Ontario should stop its lending program providing subsidized credit facilities to LDCs, and not make any additional loans to lesson 4 examination analysis, the regional distributors. There seems to be little public policy rationale for the Ontario government to add to its debt load for this purpose, when private financing is latest research paper on emotional, available.

The new regional distributors will have sufficient assets and income to obtain the most favourable rates from banks and other private lenders. Given the lesson analysis essay prewriting importance of electricity distribution to movie titles mla essays, the province’s economy, it is important that the Boards of Directors of the regional distributors display a high standard of corporate governance. To achieve this, the Panel recommends that at least two-thirds of the Board of Directors of process prewriting regional distributors should be composed of independent directors. The Panel considers that it would be preferable to have 100% independent Board membership. This has worked with the merged utility of movie Bluewater Power Distribution, and would help to overcome conflicting local priorities. The Boards should be adequately sized to have directors with an appropriate range of 4 examination process analysis essay skills and titles mla essays experience, and process prewriting be populated on the basis of directors’ qualifications to meet the management and oversight requirements of an electricity distribution utility. Some current Boards of LDCs are too small to provide adequate governance processes. The Panel expects that the Boards of the regional distributors would have Boards with a range of 7 to 11 directors. Regional distributors should also encourage their Board members to acquire proper training in the areas of animals governance and lesson 4 examination process essay prewriting the roles of Boards. The importance of strong governance and leadership in the new regional utilities is highlighted by the business issues they will face in the period immediately following consolidation. The utilities will have to work through a number of issues such as the differing pension plans, labour rates and criminal law essays uk accounting standards that currently exist among the LDCs.

The Panel does not minimize the amount of lesson prewriting work that will have to criminal uk, be done, but does not believe the issues are an insurmountable barrier to consolidation. It is confident a new approach to leadership and governance will be sufficient to meet the challenge. The 73 LDCs that are the focus of this report should be consolidated into 8 to 12 larger regional distributors that are large enough to deliver improved efficiency and enhanced customer focus, while at the same time maintaining a strong connection with their local communities. There should be two regional distributors to serve the north, one serving the northeast part of Ontario, and the other serving the northwest, leaving 6 to lesson process analysis prewriting, 10 regional distributors in southern Ontario. Any new regional distributor in southern Ontario should have a minimum of uk 400,000 customers. 4 Examination Essay Prewriting. As it has already been consolidated, Toronto Hydro may be one of the 8 to criminal uk, 12 regional distributors. The three rate-regulated First Nations’ utilities, and the three utilities that are not rate-regulated (Dubreuil Lumber, Cornwall Electric, and process prewriting Hydro One Networks Inc./Cat Lake Power Community) will be exempt from write an essay animals, this consolidation, unless they decide they want to join in. Process Prewriting. Hydro One Remote Communities, because it serves off-the-grid communities, will remain separate. The new regional distributors must have boundaries that are contiguous and stand shoulder-to-shoulder. Boundaries should follow the existing structure and architecture of the distribution system, and take into account the existing Hydro One Networks service areas. Consolidation should be completed within two years of the Government’s acceptance of the recommendations of this report.

There should be no across-the-board sale of Hydro One Networks’ distribution assets. The creation of the new system of regional distributors will be facilitated by the merger of Hydro One Networks’ assets with those of the comparing animals other existing distributors. The Ontario government should give clear and unambiguous direction to Hydro One Inc. to lead and process essay engage in the discussion of the our education system merger of its distribution assets with the appropriate interested utilities. The goal is to create new regional distributors with contiguous boundaries. The discussions will be based on a fair, market-based evaluation of assets. The owners of the current LDCs will get shares in the new regional distributors they voluntarily create in proportion to the valuation of the assets they contributed. LDCs that are amalgamated through mandatory mechanisms will have their assets valued at book value. The government should appoint a Transition Advisor to oversee the consolidation process. The Transition Advisor will advise the government on the progress of achieving complete consolidation.

The Transition Advisor will not act as a facilitator among LDCs in the creation of the individual regional distributors. Within 6 months of the government’s acceptance of the Panel’s recommendations, merging LDCs will provide a Progress Report to the government-appointed Transition Advisor. The Progress Report will be required to include evidence of an agreement among the parties, such as a Memorandum of 4 examination process analysis essay Understanding, committing them to our education in pakistan, proceed towards consolidation within the two-year timeframe. Upon receipt of a Progress Report, the lesson process analysis essay Transition Advisor may indicate to a proposed regional distributor where the merger may not result in movie titles an efficient, contiguous region or may result in 4 examination process analysis stranded service territory. Merging LDCs may then submit a revised Progress Report to essay engineering, the Transition Advisor before the end of the 4 examination analysis prewriting initial 6-month period. At the end of the essay 6-month period, the Transition Advisor will provide a Status Report to the government outlining progress on the formation of regional distributors. The report will provide information on the status of process analysis essay prewriting regional distributor formation; indicate which proposed mergers do not result in efficient, contiguous regions, or create stranded service territories; and identify LDCs that have not been taking steps to thesis ailments, create a regional distributor.

If any of the proposed regional distributors need more time to finalize their voluntary agreements, the government may decide to permit them up to three additional months to finish their work. The Transition Advisor will then submit a Final Report updating the government on the results before the end of this supplementary period. Where it is clear after consideration of the Transition Advisor’s Status Report, or in the event that the government has sanctioned an additional 3 months, the Final Report, that formation of regional distributors cannot be completed through voluntary means, the Panel recommends that the government take legislative action to ensure complete consolidation. The existing RRRP benefit should be reformed to become a Northern Rural or Remote Rate Protection benefit. Regional distributors will now have a mix of urban and rural customers that will permit the respective rates to be balanced within each region in southern Ontario. The Ontario government should enter into discussions with the federal government to facilitate removal of the transfer tax on the sale of LDC assets to private investors.

Infrastructure Ontario should stop its lending program providing subsidized credit facilities to lesson 4 examination prewriting, LDCs, and not make any additional loans to the regional distributors. LDCs that reach a successful voluntary agreement during the initial six to nine month period and about submit a licence application for the new entity to the OEB within two years should be allowed to recover their prudent transaction costs. This may include the costs of any third-party facilitation. LDCs involved in any voluntary consolidation should not be required to go through an OEB review of the merger, as it is currently set up. The mergers will be deemed by the province to have a net benefit to customers. The OEB will have regulatory oversight over any rate applications filed by distributors in the post-merger period.

The Panel anticipates that any funds from the lesson process prewriting disposal of excess utility assets would be re-invested in the regional distributors in order to latest paper, strengthen the system, and not used for dividends or other non-electricity purposes. The Panel also anticipates that savings from the lesson prewriting increased efficiency of the new regional distributors would be shared between the shareholder and customer. Given the requirement for movie, significant capital investments, it is expected that much of the savings accruing to the shareholder will be reinvested in lesson 4 examination process prewriting the electricity distribution system. Municipalities that hold promissory notes from their distributors should retire the outstanding notes that are above market value, or renegotiate them so that they reflect current interest rates. Restrictions that prevent municipal governments from making loans to the distributors in which they have an interest should be removed.

The membership of the Board of a regional distributor should have at least two-thirds independent directors. The Panel believes a Board with 100% independent membership would be preferable. The Boards should be adequately sized to comparing, have directors with an lesson prewriting appropriate range of skills and experience, and be populated on the basis of directors’ qualifications to meet the management and oversight requirements of an electricity distribution utility. Utilities should ensure that their Board members have adequate training in governance and the roles of Boards, and represent an an essay two different animals appropriate range of skills and experience. Affiliates currently owned by LDCs will not be included in any consolidation. Ontario’s electricity distribution sector is at an historic turning point. The work that LDCs have been doing for the past century is 4 examination process essay prewriting, undergoing a dramatic transformation: the nature of electricity generation is changing, and intelligence computers are turning electricity distribution into a digital, high-tech endeavour.

The foundation on which Ontario’s electricity system was built has served the province well and has supported the province’s economic growth. Lesson Process Essay Prewriting. It is not suitable, however, for the challenges and criminal law essays uk the opportunities of the future. This province needs a stronger, more innovative distribution system that can meet the changing needs of the consumer and the province. The Panel believes most municipalities and LDCs understand the status quo will not serve the citizens of the province well in the decades to come. Substantial investments in infrastructure and new technologies will eventually have to be made; the only question is whether those investments will keep pace with the evolving nature of electricity distribution, or whether the sector will be scrambling to catch up. The Panel’s first priority in reviewing the distribution sector was to process analysis essay, decide how electricity distributors could make their customers’ needs central to what they do, and enhance the economic competitiveness of on genetic engineering in humans this province. The Panel is convinced that these proposals put this future within Ontario’s grasp. The Panel is confident the leaders of the distribution sector have the lesson 4 examination prewriting vision and the skills to forge a new era in the distribution of electricity in Ontario. List of Presenters and Submitters.

Association of Municipalities of write comparing and contrasting animals Ontario Association of Power Producers of Ontario Bluewater Power Distribution Corporation Brookfield Canadian Federation of Independent Business Canadian Manufacturers Exporters Canadian Union of Public Employees Ontario Capstone Infrastructure Corporation CIBC World Markets Inc. City of Barrie City of Cambridge City of Hamilton City of lesson process Port Colborne City of Sault Ste. Marie City of Toronto Collus Power Corporation Consumers Council of Canada Corix Group of Companies Cornerstone Hydro Electric Concepts Association Electrical Contractors Association of Ontario Electrical Safety Authority Electricity Distributors Association Emera Inc. Law Essays Uk. Enersource Corporation Entegrus Powerlines Inc. EnWin Utilities Ltd Erie Thames Powerlines Corporation Fort Frances Power Corporation Fortis Inc.

FortisOntario Inc. Greater Sudbury Hydro Inc. Lesson 4 Examination Essay. Guelph Hydro Inc. Halton Hills Hydro Inc. Hamilton Chamber of Commerce Hamilton Utilities Corporation Horizon Utilities Corporation Hydro One Inc. Hydro Ottawa Holding Inc./Hydro Ottawa Group of Companies Independent Electricity System Operator International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Lakefront Utilities Inc. KPMG London Hydro Inc. On Genetic Engineering In Humans. Low-Income Energy Network Ministry of Labour Ministry of Municipal Affairs Housing Northeast Utilities Group Oakville Hydro Corporation Ontario Chamber of Commerce Ontario Energy Association Ontario Energy Board Ontario Financing Authority Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System Ontario Power Authority Oshawa PUC Networks Inc.

Peterborough Distribution Inc. Power Workers’ Union PowerStream Inc. 4 Examination Essay. RBC Capital Markets Retail Council of Canada School Energy Coalition Simul/UtilityPULSE The Common Voice Northwest Energy Task Force The Federation of Northern Ontario Municipalities The Northwestern Ontario Municipal Association The Society of movie mla essays Energy Professionals Toronto Hydro-Electric System Limited Town of Collingwood Town of Fort Frances Town of lesson process essay Niagara-on-the-Lake Township of North Dumfries Utilities Kingston/Kingston Hydro Corporation Utilities Standards Forum Utility Collaborative Services Inc. Thesis About Ailments. Veridian Connections Inc./Veridian Corporation Whitby Hydro Electric Corporation. Donald Carmichael Gerhard Langematz John McNeil Parker Gallant Private Citizen Private Citizen Private Citizen. Contiguity: A boundary without any breaks or interruptions. An electricity distributor with a contiguous boundary serves a single, unified service territory. Electricity distributors with non-contiguous boundaries serve customers in a number of separate, unconnected service areas. Distribution: A distribution system carries electricity from the transmission system and delivers it to consumers.

Typically, the network would include medium-voltage power lines, substations and pole-mounted transformers, low-voltage distribution wiring and 4 examination process analysis prewriting electricity meters. Feed-in Tariff (FIT): A guaranteed rate program that provides stable prices through long-term contracts for energy generated using renewable resources, including biogas, biomass, landfill gas, on-shore wind, solar photovoltaic and waterpower. Greenhouse Gas (GHG): Gases that contribute to the capture of heat in latest research intelligence the Earth’s atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the most prominent GHG, in 4 examination process analysis essay addition to natural sources it is released into the Earth’s atmosphere as a result of the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil or natural gas. Widely acknowledged as contributing to movie titles, climate change. Intermittent Power Generation: Sources of electricity that produce power only during certain times such as wind and solar generators whose output depends on wind speed and solar intensity. Infrastructure Ontario (IO): A crown corporation wholly owned by the Province of Ontario, the remit of which includes the provision of financing for infrastructure purposes to municipalities and eligible public organizations. 4 Examination Prewriting. LDCs as municipal corporations are eligible to apply for an IO loan for our education, capital expenditures. Kilowatt (kW): A standard quantity of power in lesson 4 examination process analysis prewriting a residential-size electricity system, equal to 1,000 watts (W).

Ten 100-watt light bulbs operated together consume one kW of power. Kilowatt-hour (kWh): A standard unit of latest intelligence electrical energy in a residential-size system. One kWh (1,000 watt-hours) is the amount of 4 examination prewriting electrical energy produced or consumed by a one-kilowatt unit during one hour. Ten 100-watt light bulbs, operated together for one hour, consume one kWh of energy. Local Distribution Company (LDC): An entity that owns a distribution system for the local delivery of energy (gas or electricity) to consumers.

The focus of this report is solely electricity LDCs. Megawatt (MW): A unit of power equal to 1,000 kilowatts (kW) or one million watts (W). Megawatt-hour (MWh): A measure of the thesis about common energy produced by a generating station over time: a one MW generator, operating for 24 hours, generates 24 MWh of energy (as does a 24 MW generator, operating for one hour). MicroFIT: Ontario residents are able to develop a very small or “micro” renewable electricity generation project (10 kilowatts or less in size) on their properties. Under the 4 examination analysis prewriting microFIT Program, they are paid a guaranteed price for all the electricity they produce for at least 20 years. Municipal Electricity Utility (MEU): An infrequently used term for a LDC which faded from usage after 1998, when MEU’s were converted into corporations under the movie OBCA. The term is lesson 4 examination process analysis, still used in some legislation to describe LDCs. Ontario Power Authority (OPA): An Ontario government agency that assesses the research paper intelligence long-term adequacy of electricity resources in Ontario, plans and procures electricity supply, and coordinates province-wide conservation efforts. Operations, Maintenance and lesson 4 examination process analysis Administration (OMA): The cost of operating, maintaining and providing the back-office administration of a business. OMA expenses typically include salaries and equipment required to provide regulated services and maintain a state of good repair. Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILs): In Ontario, electricity utilities that are at least 90% publiclyowned are exempt from corporate taxes.

Instead they pay PILs to the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation (OEFC). PILs which replicate federal and provincial corporate taxes and property taxes payable by private sector companies, are used to help pay down the stranded debt of the engineering former Ontario Hydro. Peak Demand: Peak demand, peak load or on-peak are terms describing a period in which electricity is expected to be provided for a sustained period at lesson 4 examination prewriting a significantly higher than average supply level. Rate Setting: The OEB sets an LDC’s rates to titles, enable the 4 examination analysis prewriting LDC to recover the forecasted costs which it will prudently incur to provide regulated services. Once every four years, an LDC undergoes a comprehensive Cost of Service (CoS) application where the OEB uses one year forecasted cost and revenue information submitted by the LDC to determine a base revenue requirement and the “base” rates that are set to recover that revenue requirement. In the intervening years, as part of the Incentive Regulation Mechanism (IRM) those base rates are adjusted annually according to an OEB-approved formula that includes components for inflation and the OEB’s expectations of efficiency and productivity gains. The rate setting methods are being revised as part of the OEB’s Renewed Regulatory Framework for Electricity. Rural or Remote Rate Protection (RRRP): Rural or Remote Rate Protection was established by the Ontario government to our education in pakistan essay, keep distribution rates in rural and remote parts of the province at levels similar to those paid by the rest of the 4 examination process analysis province. The cost of the RRRP benefit is recovered through a regulated charge on all Ontario electricity customers approved by the OEB. Thesis About Common. In 2012, this charge was set at 0.11 ?/kWh. Scale of Operations: The size of an LDC’s customer base and 4 examination analysis service area.

A large utility has a larger scale of operations than a small one. Scope of titles Operations: The extent to which an LDC also owns and operates other utility-like services. An LDC that also provides natural gas and water and wastewater services has a larger scope of operations than a utility that restricts its operations to electricity distribution. Shoulder-to-Shoulder Distributors: Distributors which have adjacent contiguous service areas. See contiguity.

Smart Grid: A Smart Grid delivers electricity from suppliers to lesson analysis essay, consumers using digital technology with two-way communications to control appliances at consumers’ homes to save energy, reduce costs and increase reliability and transparency. Structure and Architecture: The existing configuration of transformer stations and distribution and transmission lines that provide the framework and skeleton of the province’s electricity system. The major building blocks of the titles mla essays system’s structure and analysis essay architecture are the 52 services areas established by Hydro One Networks. Transmission: The movement or transfer of electricity over essay on genetic engineering in humans an interconnected group of lines and associated equipment between points of supply and points at which it is transformed for delivery to consumers, or is delivered to other, separate electric transmission systems. Transmission of electricity is done at lesson 4 examination analysis prewriting high voltages; the energy is transformed to lower voltages for distribution over local distribution systems. Ontario has several licenced electricity transmitters who own and operate parts of our education in pakistan Ontario’s transmission network; the largest by 4 examination process analysis prewriting, far is Hydro One Networks. 1 Task Force on in humans, Competitiveness, Productivity and 4 examination process Economic Progress, “Prospects for Ontario’s Prosperity,” November 2011, p. Research On Emotional Intelligence. 4.

2 Industry jargon provides a wealth of synonyms for a local distribution company (LDC): distributor, local or electricity distributor, utility, local utility, distribution company and so on. Lesson Essay Prewriting. Though there has been an attempt to limit the number of times this occurs, please treat any such uses as completely interchangeable. 3 In this report, unless otherwise specified, references to ‘government’ and ‘province’ are taken to mean the Government of Ontario and the province of Ontario respectively. 4 N.B. Freeman, “The Politics of Power: Ontario Hydro and its Government, 1906-1995, 1996,” University of Toronto Press, p. 10-13. 7 Formally referred to write and contrasting animals, as the Advisory Committee on 4 examination process essay prewriting, Competition in Ontario’s Electricity System. 8 Advisory Committee on movie titles, Competition in 4 examination analysis essay Ontario’s Electricity System, “A Framework for Competition: The Report of the Advisory Committee on Competition in on genetic in humans Ontario’s Electricity System to the Ontario Minister of Environment and Energy,” May 1996. Lesson 4 Examination Process Essay. See Summary of Recommendations. 9 The reduction to 89 LDCs is based on an interview with Neil Freeman, author of The Politics of Power (see earlier references). 10 Hydro One Networks currently holds an interim electricity distribution licence issued by the OEB under section 59(2) of the Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 under which Hydro One Networks has possession and control of certain distribution businesses serving the Cat Lake community. 11 Data based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” September 2012.

Accessed October 2012. 13 Ibid. Note that OEB Yearbook data does not include: the three First Nations-owned LDCs (Attawapiskat Power, Fort Albany Power and Kashechewan Power); the three non-rate-regulated LDCs (cited previously in thesis this chapter); and lesson analysis prewriting Hydro One Remote Communities’ customer numbers are included in Hydro One Networks’ customer numbers. 14 Quoted from Hydro One Inc.’s official submission to the Panel. 15 References to LDC sizes throughout this Report are based on these thresholds. 16 Based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” op. cit. 17 According to Borealis’ website. An Essay Comparing And Contrasting Two Different. Accessed November 2012. 18 A provincial tax of as much as 33% is payable when a municipally-owned LDC transfers or sells assets to a private investor. When the Ontario government gave municipalities ownership of lesson 4 examination essay their MEUs, they were provided with a source of income and latest research on emotional intelligence the potential to realize significant profits should they sell their utilities. The transfer tax captures some of that gain to help pay down the stranded debt that occurred when Ontario Hydro was restructured.

19 Quoted from OMERS’ meeting with the 4 examination process essay prewriting Panel. 21 OMA and essay customer analysis based on Ontario Energy Board Yearbook of Electricity Distributors from the years 2005 to 2011, inclusive, op. cit. Inflation analysis based on seasonally adjusted Total Consumer Price Index, taken from The Bank of Canada website. Accessed October 2012. 23 The OMA costs of the two largest utilities in Ontario, Hydro One Networks and Toronto Hydro, are excluded from the charts in Fig. 6 and Fig. Lesson Analysis Essay. 7 because of their unique circumstances. Hydro One Networks has higher costs because its low overall customer density is spread out over a wide service area. Toronto Hydro also has unique cost pressures. Latest Paper On Emotional Intelligence. Its aging assets have to serve a dense urban core that has the highest growth rate in multi-residential buildings in North America.

24 Infrastructure Ontario – October 2012. 26 Ontario Energy Board, “2012-2015 Business Plan,” August 2012, p. 24. Lesson Process Analysis Essay Prewriting. Accessed October 2012. 27 Ontario Auditor General, “2011 Annual Report of the Office of the Auditor General of Ontario,” 2011, p. On Genetic Engineering In Humans. 67. 31 OEB – November 2012. 32 The Electricity Sector Council of process prewriting Canada, “Powering up the system essay Future: 2008 Labour Market Information Study,” 2008, p. 57.

34 Ontario Energy Association, “Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel Submission,” July 2012, p. 28. 35 Ontario Ministry of Energy, “Ontario’s Long-Term Energy Plan: Building Our Clean Energy Future,” 2010, Queen’s Printer for Ontario, p. 3. 40 As of 4 examination analysis October 31 2012. Source: Hydro One Networks. 41 In developing this pilot, Horizon Utilities has followed the Ontario Information and paper intelligence Privacy Commissioner’s approach of “Privacy by Design.” More on “Privacy by Design.” 42 Horizon Utilities – November 2012. 43 Based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of 4 examination process prewriting Electricity Distributors,” op. cit. 44 Information compiled from a variety of sources, including the Panel’s own analysis. 45 Quoted from Entegrus Powerlines’ official submission to the Panel. 46 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, op. cit., p. 20.

47 B. Baker, L. Coad, T.A. Crawford, I. Sklokin, “Canada’s Electricity Infrastructure: Building a Case for Investment,” Conference Board of on genetic in humans Canada, April 2011, p. 23. 49 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, op. cit., p. 12. 50 See Ontario Energy Board’s Decision and Order on February 22, 2012 regarding EB-2011-0123. 52 Electricity Distributors Association, “The Power to Deliver: Recommendations for 4 examination analysis, the future of electricity distribution in Ontario,” August 2012, p. 5. 53 G. Hodgson, “Needed: A Comprehensive Growth Strategy for Ontario,” Conference Board of Canada, November 2012, p. Essay In Humans. 4. 54 Ontario Energy Association, “Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel Submission,” July 2012, Cover Letter. 55 Quoted from the Retail Council of Canada’s official submission to 4 examination process, the Panel. 57 C. Growitsch, T. Jamasb, M. Pollitt, “Quality of service, efficiency and scale in essay network industries: an analysis of European electricity distribution,” Applied Economics 41 (2009), no.

20, p. 2555-2570. 58 N. Bagdadiolglu, C.W. Price, T. Lesson 4 Examination Process Essay Prewriting. Weyman-Jones, “Measuring Potential Gains from movie, Mergers among Electricity Distribution Companies in Turkey using a Non-Parametric Model,” The Energy Journal 28 (2007), no. 4 Examination Analysis Prewriting. 2, p. 109. 59 B. Tovar, F.J. Ramos-Real, E.F. Movie Titles. de Almeida, “Productivity evolution and Scale effects in Brazilian Electricity Distribution Industry. Lesson 4 Examination Process Essay. Evidence from criminal law essays uk, 1998-2005 period,” Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada 4 (2009), p. 2. 61 See, for example: A. Yatchew, “Scale Economies in Electricity Distribution: A Semiparametric Analysis,” Journal of Applied Econometrics 15 (March/April 2000), no. 2, p. 187-210.

62 Commission on the Reform of Ontario’s Public Services, “Public Services for Ontarians: A Path to Sustainability and Excellence,” February 2012, p. 331. 63 Electricity Distributors Association, op. cit., p. 37. 65 Texts in bold face are summaries of the process analysis essay prewriting Panel’s recommendations. The formal recommendations can be found in Chapter 6. 66 ‘GGH’ is an on emotional abbreviation for 4 examination, Greater Golden Horseshoe. 67 Commission on the Reform of Ontario’s Public Services, op. cit., p. 406. See discussion on Asset Transactions.

69 Assumed annual discount rate of movie titles 6%. 70 Based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” op. Process Analysis Essay. cit. 71 Note that Hydro One Remote Communities and the distribution assets in movie mla essays the Cat Lake community are considered out of scope. 72 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, op. cit., p. 41. 73 Built off the glossary of: Ontario Ministry of Energy, “Ontario’s Long-Term Energy Plan: Building Our Clean Energy Future,” op. cit., p. 66-68.

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The aim is to 4 examination process, expand on Hall’s theory that an image does not have.

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essay romance scott Scott had been an enthusiastic novel-reader since his school years and had acquired not only an exhaustive knowledge of the English novel tradition but extensive familiarity with the process classics of French, German, and Spanish fiction (see School and University and Literary Beginnings). According to his own account in the 'General Preface' to the 'Magnum Opus' edition of the Waverley Novels (1829), Scott's first experiments with prose fiction date from the turn of the nineteenth century. Our Education System In Pakistan Essay. Two fragments survive (published as appendices to lesson 4 examination process analysis essay, the 'General Preface'). Criminal Uk. Thomas the Rhymer was destined to be a 'tale of chivalry' in the style of Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto , 'with plenty of Border characters, and supernatural incident' . The Lord of Ennerdale too was strongly influenced by prevailing Gothic models such as Walpole, Anne Radcliffe, and 'Monk' Lewis. Neither work was carried beyond its first chapter. Scott did not, though, abandon the ambition to write prose fiction. According to lesson 4 examination process essay prewriting, the General Preface (1829) to the 'Magnum Opus' edition of the thesis common Waverley Novels, he began work 'about the lesson 4 examination process essay year 1805' on a novel entitled 'Waverley, or 'tis Fifty Years Since', inspired by tales heard from Jacobite veterans and by his own travels in the Highlands as an apprentice Writer to our education system, the Signet (see Professional Life). Scott was intrigued by the fictional potential of the clash between the ancient, patriarchal customs of the Highlanders and the march of 4 examination analysis prewriting, progress in our education in pakistan, the increasingly industrialized age of the lesson 4 examination process analysis Enlightenment.

Having given the opening chapters to read to his friend Will Erskine (portrayed, right), an unfavourable reaction left Scott reluctant to risk the literary reputation newly won by the success of The Lay of the Last Minstrel (see Scott the Poet). The fragment then lay forgotten in a drawer until autumn 1813. Recent critics have queried the chronology of Scott's account, uncovering compelling textual and system essay circumstantial evidence that Scott was actively engaged with the novel over process essay prewriting, the period 1808-10 and, indeed, may not have begun work on it before that time (see the Waverley page for the relevant arguments). They have also questioned Scott's account (in the General Preface) of the literary influences that led him to resume his experiment with fiction. The debt that Scott acknowledges to Maria Edgeworth (portrayed, left) is unarguably genuine. The success of her novels of Irish manners such as Castle Rackrent and Ennui led Scott to believe that his countrymen might be presented to the English novel-reading public 'in a more favourable light than they had been placed hitherto, and tend to procure sympathy for their virtues and indulgence for their foibles.' Edgeworth would later become a valued correspondent of Scott and acute reader of thesis about ailments, his novels. While acknowledging Edgeworth's influence, however, Scott downplays that of other practitioners of the 'national tale' or novel of regional manners such as Lady Morgan, Jane Porter, and Elizabeth Hamilton. In so doing and in backdating the genesis of Waverley to 1805, Scott's first novel thus appears to pre-empt rather than respond to lesson 4 examination process, a literary mode. A further influence, possibly overstated by about, Scott, was the editorial work undertaken for John Murray on Joseph Strutt's unfinished romance of lesson process analysis essay prewriting, fifteenth-century England Queenhoo-Hall (published 1808), to which Scott added two concluding chapters of titles, his own. Scott attributed the essay prewriting commercial failure of Queenhoo-Hall to Strutt's excessively archaic language and desire to our education system in pakistan, vaunt his antiquarian knowledge. He felt that it would be possible to write a historical romance more readily comprehensible to lesson process essay, the general reader but feared there was little appetite for tales of medieval chivalry.The enthusiastic public and critical response to the description of Highland landscape and manners in Scott poem The Lady of the write an essay and contrasting Lake (1810) persuaded him that a prose narrative of more recent history, with a Highland setting, might have a better chance of success.

According to Scott's account in the 'General Preface' to the 'Magnum Opus' edition of the Waverley Novels (questioned by some recent critics and biographers), the Waverley manuscript was mislaid during his move to Abbotsford in 1811. One day in autumn 1813, however, Scott claims to have come across the manuscript in a drawer while rummaging for fishing tackle. He reread it, was persuaded that it had potential, and resolved to complete it. He was bolstered in this resolution by the disappointing sales of his recent narrative poem Rokeby and the pressing financial difficulties of John Ballantyne's publishing business, in which Scott was silent half-partner (see Financial Hardship). Consulted once again on the completion of the first volume, Will Erskine reversed his original opinion, and warmly encouraged Scott. The second and analysis third volumes were completed in an extraordinary three-week burst in June 1814, and write two different animals Waverley (with the subtitle updated to ''tis Sixty Years Since'), published on 7 July, a few weeks before Scott's forty-third birthday. The novel (illustrated, right) was published anonymously and, in order to preserve Scott's incognito, the manuscript had been copied out in John Ballantyne's hand before going to print. Scott's novels would continue to be published anonymously or under pseudonyms until 1827 when Scott admitted to his authorship at a public dinner. Only those closest to Scott were let into the secret of his authorship, though thousands more came to suspect it. There is lesson analysis essay prewriting no clear single reason why Scott wished to remain anonymous, but a number of factors contributed to system in pakistan essay, his decision.

Firstly, the novel was not considered a serious genre at the time, especially in lesson essay, comparison with the sort of narrative verse that Scott had hitherto published. Secondly, writing fiction would not have been regarded as a decorous pastime for a Clerk of the Session (see Professional Life). Finally, Scott viewed the publication of Waverley as an experiment upon the public taste and wished to protect his reputation should the book fail. Titles Mla Essays. As time went on, though, and the Waverley Novels became ever more popular, Scott's anonymity undoubtedly also appealed to 4 examination process essay prewriting, his taste for romance and mystery. Over the next five years, Scott wrote a further eight novels set in and contrasting two different, seventeenth- or eighteenth-century Scotland. It is 4 examination process analysis substantially upon criminal uk, these works that Scott's critical reputation now rests. 4 Examination Process Essay Prewriting. Guy Mannering (1815) and The Antiquary (1816), Scott's own favourite amongst his novels, complete, with Waverley , an ideal trilogy illustrating three periods of Scottish history from the about common ailments 1740s to the 1800s. Each volume brought further commercial success.

Critical opinion was broadly favourable though there was the first hint of charges that would be regularly leveled at Scott's future novels: that he repeated his characters under different names, failed to make his Scots dialogue sufficiently comprehensible for an English audience, relied excessively on the supernatural, or was irreverent in matters of lesson process essay prewriting, religion. For his next publication Scott made a further attempt to titles mla essays, mystify the public, adopting the 4 examination nom de plume of Jedediah Cleishbotham, schoolmaster at the fictional village of Gandercleuch. Cleishbotham purported to be editing the narratives of one Peter Pattieson which in turn were supposed to be based on stories told by the landlord of the local inn. As the movie titles mla essays volume was to 4 examination analysis essay prewriting, be published by Blackwood rather than Constable, Scott hoped that the public would believe a new writer had appeared to challenge the supremacy of the 'Author of law essays, Waverley '. Tales of My Landlord (1816) was originally to consist of four short novels on Scottish regional themes. However, The Tale of lesson process analysis essay, Old Mortality , set during the anti-Covenanting campaign of James Graham of Claverhouse, grew to fill three volumes, and of the other stories, only The Black Dwarf was completed and published along with it. The Tales matched the commercial success of the earlier trilogy, and about critics concurred with Scott's own assessment that Old Mortality (illustrated, above right) was his best work to date. They equally, however, shared Scott's view that The Black Dwarf , a tale of family rivalry in early eighteenth-century Scotland, retrod old ground.

A Third Series of Tales of My Landlord appeared in 1819. Lesson 4 Examination Prewriting. Written when Scott was critically ill, The Bride of Lammermoor (illustrated, left) was a return to titles, the world of the lesson 4 examination analysis essay prewriting Border ballads. Mla Essays. One of the few Scott novels to have a tragic conclusion, its tale of foredoomed love immediately caught the lesson 4 examination process essay public imagination. Criminal Law Essays Uk. It inspired many artists and 4 examination process prewriting gave rise to numerous stage and musical adaptations, most famously Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor . Its companion-piece A Legend of Montrose , set during the latest research on emotional intelligence Royalist Earl of 4 examination analysis essay prewriting, Montrose's Highland campaign against the Covenanters in latest paper on emotional intelligence, 1644, has remained somewhat in its shadow. Its mercenary anti-hero, Captain Dalgetty, however has since been recognized as one of Scott's finest comic characters. Nonetheless, Scott did not immediately seek to replicate the success of Ivanhoe with another chivalric romance. His next two novels returned to a Scottish setting. Process Analysis Essay Prewriting. The Monastery and its sequel The Abbot (both 1820) were set in the reign of common ailments, Mary, Queen of lesson 4 examination process analysis, Scots. If the former disappointed many readers (including Scott himself), the latter, dealing with Mary's escape from imprisonment, fully restored his reputation. Its success helped Scott overcome his initial misgivings about his ability to inhabit the sixteenth-century imaginatively, and his next novel Kenilworth (1821) was set in Elizabethan England.

Scott, by write an essay comparing and contrasting two different animals, this stage, was writing at a feverish rate, and before the end of 1821 had published a further novel, The Pirate , set in early seventeenth-century Shetland and process analysis essay prewriting Orkney. Excluded from the relatively limited twentieth-century Scott canon, The Abbot and The Pirate remained amongst Scott's most popular works throughout the nineteenth-century, providing source material for our education many Victorian artists, and inspiring tourist pilgrimages to Loch Leven (portrayed, above left) and the Northern Isles. Kenilworth too was a major European success and, long dismissed as a succession of historical tableaux, has recently enjoyed a critical revival. Scott maintained his phenomenal rate of production with The Fortunes of Nigel in 4 examination analysis essay, May 1822 and essay on genetic engineering in humans Peveril of the lesson process Peak in law essays, January 1823. With these works he returned to the seventeenth century. The former is set shortly after the Union of the Crowns and traces the efforts of a Scottish nobleman to protect his inheritance at the court of King James VI and I. The latter deals with the so-called Popish Plot of 1678. Although Scott retained his popularity with the reading public, critical opinion was by now divided. Increasingly, Scott was charged with over-hasty composition, careless plotting, and the duplication of characters and situations. Reviewers repeatedly insinuated that he was now writing less for fame than fortune. Two further novels appeared in 1823.

Quentin Durward , set in fifteenth-century France, was Scott's first fictional venture onto the continent of Europe. Despite being his most critically acclaimed work since Ivanhoe , sales were slow. Scott and lesson his publishers began to fear that they were glutting the market and that the movie titles mla essays public were struggling to essay prewriting, believe that the 'Author of criminal law essays, Waverley' could be solely responsible for such a rapid succession of novels. Process Analysis. In stark contrast, Quentin Durward (illustrated, above right) caused a similar sensation in France to Waverley in Scotland and Ivanhoe in England. Essay. The vogue for the novel subsequently spread across Europe, eventually awakening renewed interest in Britain. Although it has fallen out of critical favour in the English-speaking world, it remains one of Scott's most translated works. Scott's next work St. Ronan's Well , published after a tactical pause in 4 examination, December 1823, was another bold departure.

His only work with a nineteenth-century setting, it portrays the domestic tragedies and comedies of thesis, a small Scottish spa-town and bears testimony to Scott's admiration for Jane Austen. It was perhaps Scott's least favourably reviewed novel, with critics censuring Scott for 'descending' to a lesser genre befitting only mediocre talents. The critics were relieved to see Scott return to lesson analysis prewriting, the high Middle Ages with Tales of the Crusaders (1825). Latest Paper. Scott here united two novels, The Talisman , set in Palestine during the lesson 4 examination essay prewriting Third Crusade, and essay on genetic The Betrothed , a tale of border conflicts between Anglo-Norman and Welsh barons. Featuring Saladin and Richard the Lionheart in lesson process analysis, prominent roles, the former gave rise to further debate on the propriety of mingling historical facts and personages with fiction. Common. As Scott and his publishers had hoped, though, its virtues nonetheless distracted critics and public from the shortcomings of its companion piece. Particularly in Europe, The Talisman remains a highly popular novel, though largely promoted as a work for children. As Scott fought to pay off his debts during the last six years of his life, his fictional production dropped off. Analysis Essay. His creative energy was primarily expended on the biography of Napoleon (1827-8) and the lucrative Tales of a Grandfather (1828-31) and law essays uk History of Scotland (1829). He nonetheless published four further volumes of fiction. Chronicles of the Canongate (1827) was credited to a new nom de plume , Mr.

Chrystal Croftangry, and contained two short-stories: 'The Highland Widow', and 'The Two Drovers', and a novella, 'The Surgeon's Daughter'. Despite lukewarm reviews, Scott considered the 4 examination process analysis two short stories among his finest work, an opinion shared by many recent critics. The Second Series of Chronicles of the Canongate was composed entirely of the novel The Fair Maid of Perth (1828). Law Essays Uk. Set in late fourteenth-century Scotland, it was Scott's last major commercial and critical success as a writer of fiction. Scott returned to 4 examination process essay, the fifteenth-century dynastic quarrels of in pakistan, Quentin Durward for his next novel Anne of Geierstein (1829) (illustrated, left).

To his surprise, it was relatively well received by both public and critics, though some of the latter shared his own opinion that the factual elements of the plot were more interesting than the purely fictional. Finally, in lesson 4 examination process analysis prewriting, December 1831, ten months before Scott's death, his last two novels Count Robert of Paris and Castle Dangerous were published together as a Fourth Series of latest research paper on emotional intelligence, Tales of analysis essay prewriting, My Landlord . The former was set in Byzantium during the First Crusade, the latter in the Scottish Borders during the Wars of Independence. Although Scott barely considered them 'seaworthy', the public remained faithful. Critical reaction was uneffusive but largely respectful, though subsequent commentators regarded them as the weakest part of Scott's oeuvre. Perhaps, though, Scott's greatest literary commitment in research intelligence, the last years of his life was in revising his fiction for the 'Magnum Opus' edition of the Waverley Novels published from 1829 onwards. Lesson Process Analysis Essay. In addition, Scott wrote lengthy introductions to each volume and added copious contextual notes. The 'Magnum Opus' remained the standard edition of Scott throughout the Victorian period and its critical status has only recently been challenged by write an essay comparing two different animals, the Edinburgh Edition (see Recent Publications).

For further details of all of the novels discussed on this page (compositional history, plot summary, reception by contemporary critics and readers) follow the links on the Works page. For e-texts of the novels discussed on this page (from external providers), click here.