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Blue Law Assignment Homework Help. Blue Law Assignment Help. Blue Law is the term was initially utilized back in algebra paper 1755. It is an essay and contrasting legislation that restricts or limits specific activities in algebra term order to support spiritual requirements. Essay. In uncommon circumstances, blue laws influence activities on days aside from Sunday, however the most typical usage remains in algebra paper reference to Sunday, where case they are likewise called #8220;Sunday laws.#8221; In its strictest sense, #8220;blue law#8221; * describes an order developed to manage public activities on the Sabbath, which implied Sunday to arts culinary the Congregationalists of that day.
In typical parlance, the algebra paper, term blue law was broadened to consist of numerous various locations of essay on showbiz habits: The Puritans were most likely the very first to impose Blue laws on the North American continent, prohibiting numerous industrial and leisure activities on Sundays throughout the 1600s. The term #8220;blue laws#8221; initially used to laws apparently enacted by the Puritans in seventeenth-century Connecticut to control ethical habits (specifically exactly what individuals should or need to refrain from algebra term, doing on the Sabbath) which required rather extreme penalties to be used to wrongdoers. Originally enacted to permit observation of Sunday as a Sabbath, blue laws have actually come under attack as breaking the separation of church and state. The courts, nevertheless, have actually promoted most blue laws, on arts culinary the basis that their observance has actually ended up being nonreligious and promotes Sunday as a day of rest and relaxation. You cannot purchase alcohol on Sundays and automobile dealers can just be open one day over a weekend since of the last residues of so-called #8220;blue laws#8221; in Texas. Blue laws have actually been around given that prior to algebra paper Texas or the United States was established. Career Essay. Their function, initially, was to restrict the sale of specific products on Sundays, a day typically indicated to algebra be invested in church and resting. With time, the laws have actually altered in Texas, and easy essay topics, the majority of the restrictions were eliminated in 1985, other than, obviously, for term paper, the limitations on alcohol and on car dealerships. The state#8217;s 2,460 alcohol shops cannot offer alcohol on Sunday, however after midday on essay Sundays, dining establishments and bars can offer alcohols, and shops can offer beer and wine. For those who wish to purchase their alcohol previously on algebra term Sundays, the present budget plan crunch might be their pal. The state Senate#8217;s Company and Commerce Committee has prior to it an expense that would raise the Sunday restriction on observation alcohol; fans state doing so might bring huge dollars into the state#8217;s coffers.
Fans compete blue laws serve legitimate nonreligious functions, such as supplying a consistent day off and algebra paper, lowering works on an essay comparing and contrasting cops departments (when it comes to laws limiting alcohol sales and the possibly resulting law-enforcement issues). Critics charge that the laws are financially difficult and breach the religious-liberty provisions of the First Change. Some say the laws break the free-exercise stipulation by enforcing a downside on those whose Sabbath day is not Sunday, while others say the laws breach the facility provision by advancing and backing Christianity. Still others state that the laws though spiritual in origin are now validated by nonreligious functions. Blue laws have a long history and custom in the United States, dating to Colonial times. Colonial leaders merely followed the design of such laws in term England.
Sabbath laws mandating a day of college research paper outline rest on Sunday appeared in the Roman Empire in term paper the Fourth century A.D. with the impact of Christianity. The concern stays whether blue laws will stay on physics the books for several years to come or will wither away. A few of the laws have actually come under enhancing fire throughout hard financial times. Critics have actually charged that the incredible automobile market in Michigan would be well served if the restriction on Sunday automobile sales in huge counties was ended. Because that time, as our culture has actually grown more nonreligious, Blue laws have actually lost appeal and have actually dealt with opposition, and paper, numerous Blue laws in numerous states have actually been rescinded, yet a number of them still exist. Frequently, when challenged, they are maintained as constitutional since there is an expected nonreligious, along with spiritual, function behind them. Furthermore, considering our varied society and college research paper apa format, our wide varieties of people that do not praise on Sunday, in numerous methods Sunday laws now infringe on conscience and stomp upon the spiritual liberty ensured by our constitution. Algebra Term Paper. Enabling these laws to continue sets an unsafe precedent by damaging the necessary department in between church and career essay, state.
The very first blue law, although not called that at the time, was enacted in colonial Virginia in 1610, and paper, it mandated church participation (at both early morning and afternoon services) on Sundays; a novice transgressor lost his #8220;arrangement and allowance for title, the entire week.#8221; Those who dedicated a 2nd offense, in addition to algebra paper losing his #8220;allowance,#8221; would be whipped. A 3rd offense was, allegedly, penalized by death, though there is argument over whether accounts of early blue laws remained in some cases overemphasized or not. Today, just a handful of blue laws stay, and the majority of these manage the easy essay topics, sale of term paper alcohol. Numerous states restrict its sale on write an essay comparing and contrasting two different Sunday, either all day or for a restricted period, from plan shops or completely, consisting of Arkansas (sales forbade), Indiana (most sales restricted, with exceptions for dining establishments, pubs and regional breweries), Maine (no sales in between 1 a.m. and 9 a.m.), Minnesota (no sales from alcohol shops), New Mexico (no sales till 12 p.m.), New York (no bundle alcohol sales in between 3 a.m. and 9 a.m., with numerous regional variations) and West Virginia (no alcohol sales prior to 1 p.m.). Substantive obstacles make up claims that blue laws breach flexibility of religious beliefs and paper, unlawfully limit trade.
The preemptive argument states that blue laws dispute with federal legislation.
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My Hero Essay Essays and Research Papers. March 2013 Are You My Hero ? When the word “ hero ” comes to mind, what do you see? A guy in algebra term, tights with a cape or a . person fighting for something they believe in? A hero is someone who is strong and can handle anything thrown at them, willing and able and ready at any moment, right? Karl Marlantes’s story shows such heroism during the Vietnam War and college research outline apa format my mother’s story show’s a more personal heroism. There are heroes all over, but let’s start with what it really means to term paper, be a hero . A hero is defined as. Family , Father , Hero 1400 Words | 3 Pages. When I think about what my hero means to me, I realize that most of on showbiz my special memories and feelings toward . my hero come from the little things he does everyday. My hero is not a celebrity or such a recognizable face. My hero is not a national hero or a multi-millionaire. He has never saved me from a burning castle or an avalanche, but he does hug me and paper tell me to have a good day.
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This image of a hero comes from years of comic books, television shows and movies portraying people with unusual abilities as heroes. The mere mention of the word “ hero ” and on showbiz a person’s mind tends. Courage , Hero , Preity Zinta 772 Words | 2 Pages. How Does Robert Cormier Present Ideas About Heroes in His Novel, Heroes? Francis into term paper, a character who thinks very little of himself, dislikes the way he looks, and who doesn’t fit everybody’s “idea” of on showbiz a hero . . Francis has many facial disfigurements; “…I have no face”. Francis' was involved in some kind of horrific accident.
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Truly, Rizal deserves to be the hero of this Country. Like what Zaide wrote “He (Rizal) was not quarrelsome by nature, but he never ran away from a fight”. Every hero has its own exemplary deeds but for algebra, me, Rizal, is one of the best Heros because of his patriotic services in his country. From his writings. Courage , English-language films , Hero 654 Words | 2 Pages. Prof. Martin SPC1017 16 February 2011 My Hero - It was almost automatic as soon as I saw the topic that . my Mom is the hero of my life. - Dictionary.com’s definition of the word hero is “a person who, in easy essay, the opinion of others, has heroic qualities or has performed a heroic act and paper is regarded as a model or ideal: He was a local hero when he saved the drowning child.” - She was the most amazing person I’ve ever had in essay, my life. - I’ve never looked up to someone and term adored being with. English-language films , Hero , Ski 430 Words | 2 Pages.
Kevin Chan Everyone wants to play an important role on life, like a hero . But history told us only a part of essay people could be a . hero . Obviously, hero is unique. Algebra Term Paper! Do they have what quality is wroth we learn? My hero is Benjamin Franklin. I learned many good qualities from him. Benjamin Franklin is a great person in American history.
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My father would pick me up and put me back on paper my feet. He always encouraged me to “get up and try it again.” I felt. 2006 albums , Family , Father 630 Words | 2 Pages. An Everyday Hero By 10/11/2012 Everybody has an culinary, everyday hero . An everyday hero , though who they are . and why they are our hero may be different from the person next to term, us, have at least one thing in common, they make a difference in our daily lives. Arts Career Culinary! Everyday heroes can be intelligent, brave, kind, loving, or anything else that you may consider as a heroic trait. For me personally, I consider my mom to be an everyday hero in my life. Term! One of the heroic traits I see in my mom is that. 2004 albums , Comfort women , English-language films 481 Words | 2 Pages. Eng abc Teacher DATE Hero to me is a person or an animal that is able to put a smile on and contrasting a human face and make others feel comfortable and . safe, without further thinking.
People can’t call themselves heroes because they do not have superpowers, however people do heroic things. People don’t have to do big things to algebra term paper, become heroes, they can do little things and that still make them heroes. Animals can do similar things. When I was a little girl I believed that a hero is college research paper apa format a rich person who will. Athena , Form of the Good , Hero 641 Words | 2 Pages. ?Mu Lu ESL 52A 8 April,2013 My Favorite Heroes There are a lot of people who I admire most; some of them are in history, some are . my family member who passed away years ago, and some of them are political leaders from algebra paper, history and in the present. I have a lot of reasons why I admire them because they are my favorite heroes, who inspire me greatly. Among those people, one of my favorite heroes is general Aung San who was Burmese revolutionary leader and negotiated with British Empire for Burma’s. Aung San , Aung San Suu Kyi , Bamar 524 Words | 2 Pages. Heroes A hero is typically someone legendary or someone of great strength or ability. In my opinion a hero is not . just a person you see every day or a celebrity in which you think is cool.
A hero is someone who works hard for everything! In some cases a hero to some people, is someone who loves them, and career won’t stop loving them. My hero is, my mom, in my eyes she is extraordinary because she stands out. My mom is the role model, in my life and in my mind worthy of my admiration. Term! My mom loves me. Courage , English-language films , FACT 536 Words | 2 Pages. ? My Hero My hero is one that is culinary very close to algebra term paper, me. My hero is the . person that gave birth to college paper outline, me. My hero is my mother.
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2013 My Hero It gets me through Last year, I went through the algebra hardest things I've ever been faced with in . Outline! my life. I lost my grandpa and two months later I lost my aunt and soon after our home was foreclosed on. This left me thinking, Is this the algebra paper end of the beginning or the thesis beginning of the end. Paper! What I needed was something to help get me through these traumas. That's where my hero , Ozzy Osbourne, comes in. Easy Essay Topics! In the algebra essay My Heroes, Elizabeth Berg describes how her daughters hero is her. Down to Earth , Family , Grandparent 1182 Words | 3 Pages.
My Heroes “ My Heroes” was written by Elizabeth Berg, who has published many popular books since 1993. In the article, Berg told . us that real heroes were ordinary people around us. Because Berg’s daughter chose her friend as a hero who saved her from drowning in a creek, Berg realized a hero wouldn’t have to be a famous person. When Mrs. Zinz, an on showbiz, eighth-grade English teacher, was harassed by Berg and her friend, she wasn’t angry. Mrs. Zinz didn’t lower herself and become mean. Another hero in algebra, Berg’s. Family , Hero 972 Words | 3 Pages.
?Hermann Ajong College Writing I 1201 13 Shih-Kneel, Nancy Family Essay Date: 09-27-2013 Hero in my world . Where would I have been without you mother? Destiny gives us opportunities to meet new people in our lives. Each one bringing a unique flavor, molding us into what we will become. There is arts career culinary essay always that one person who will walk in when the rest of the algebra term paper world walks out, the person that won’t sleep if I don't sleep, the person that will run up and down looking for something for me to eat, the. Eye color , Family , Father 1463 Words | 4 Pages. My Hero : Jesus Christ I know that it is only Jesus Christ who fulfills the definition of a true hero . I looked up . “ hero ” in the dictionary and paper outline apa format this is what it said: 1. Algebra Paper! A man of on showbiz distinguished courage or ability, admired for his brave deeds and noble qualities. 2. Term! A person who, in physics thesis, the opinion of algebra others, has heroic qualities or has performed a heroic act and is regarded as a model or ideal: e.g., He was a local hero when he saved the drowning child. 3. The principal male character in a story, play.
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Apartment , Condominium , Hero 699 Words | 4 Pages. According to the beloved country essay, Linda Seger and her essay Creating the Myth; there are ten beats that can turn even the algebra paper most unlikely characters into first-class . Easy Essay Topics! heroes. Algebra Term Paper! Her principles are held true in Disney Pixar’s Despicable Me. In the beginning of the movie, the protagonist, Gru, is two different animals a grumpy super villain who undergoes a complete change of heart after experiencing the joy of becoming a father to three orphaned sisters. His previous life as a villain is forgotten, and he becomes a great hero and dad. Gru morphs into term, a. Despicable Me , English-language films , Hero 1334 Words | 4 Pages. ? Hero Essay A hero is different to every person. However, societies normally have similar views when it comes to a . hero . Two American heroes, Edward Bloom and outline apa format Chris McCandless are to some extent viewed the same way the term paper Greeks viewed their own ancient Greek hero , Odysseus. These 3 heroes all have characteristics, traits, and projected ideals admired and pursued by apa format their societies and for this very reason when both are compared, Chris McCandless is the better American hero when compared to Edward. Ancient Greece , Greece , Greek mythology 1301 Words | 3 Pages.
My Uncle My Hero Picture this: a little girl at algebra paper, five dancing around the living room on her daddy’s feet. . Now picture her at sixteen going on her first date and essay her dad interrogating the boy. Finally, picture her at algebra paper, eighteen, and her father sitting proudly in the stands watching her get her diploma. College Research Outline Apa Format! Now you have pictured these scenes erase the dad’s part of term paper it and essay add an uncle. This has been my life for the past eighteen years. Algebra Term Paper! Instead, of the dad being an influence on an essay comparing and contrasting my life, my uncle Jamie. 2002 albums , 2007 albums , College 1152 Words | 3 Pages. Annabelle Staid Mrs. Gustafson English 4 honors 16 August 2012 My Hero : Dick Hoyt Many teenagers have heroes who are . athletes or performers simply because they are famous and wealthy individuals.
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He was always spoiling me and term always taking me places that he had never taken me before. He taught me many life lessons and gave me great insights that I hold on close to this day. He always seemed to have a big appetite. I could never picture him having disgust for food or being sick, but when the symptoms started. English-language films , Family , Grandparent 1451 Words | 3 Pages. Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela, a true hero in the beloved country, this controversial world or just another politician? Was his 27 years of term paper imprisonment for essay, . standing up against his nations government, which did not support human rights, equality and world poverty, something the algebra paper country of Africa should be proud about? As disappointing as it might seem, the answer is a straight and physics title simple, no. Nelson Mandela, my hero , the man that everyone knows, that conquered black domination in Africa, that healed his countries.
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Section: AE4AA Submitted to: Mrs. Elsa Laquindanum Technical Writing “ My Great Teacher also My Hero ” . Objective/Purpose: To inspire and encourage many of us, also cheers us up to “Keep Looking Forward”. Description of algebra paper Lesson: A teacher (also called a schoolteacher) is a person who provides education for students. Thesis! I decided to start my compilation with something meaningful, I entitled it “ My Great Teacher also My Hero ”. A simple tribute to algebra term paper, her and to the beloved essay, them, to our beloved teachers who shows us. Certified teacher , Education , Lesson plan 1101 Words | 4 Pages. My Ambition In Life Essay To Become A C.
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Category Archives: Pointless Essays. Thoreau’s Cosmopolitical Proposal. Henry David Thoreau casts a long shadow over my thoughts about and practice of walking, particularly his essay “On Walking” which opens with “I wish to speak a word for Nature, for absolute freedom and wildness, as contrasted with a freedom and algebra term culture merely civil,–to regard man as an inhabitant, or a part and parcel of nature, rather than a member of society.” In a stroke, he introduces what becomes an physics elemental concept–the wild–and frames his understanding of the human away from society in the big outside actively participating in the making of algebra paper that outside. But his initial phrasing also opens the question of who is authorized to speak for another, particularly an other without language. Although the essay is full of many strongly (if ironically) stated sentiments about who is qualified to walk–“If you are ready to leave father and mother, and brother and sister, and wife and child and friends, and an essay two different never see them again,–if you have paid your debts, and made your will, and settle all of your affairs, and are a free man, then you are ready for a walk.”–speaking a word for nature is, from the first instant, made in a tentative voice. He might speak a word for Nature, but he cannot speak for Nature. “On Walking” is an essay on being “part and parcel of nature,” of acknowledging its “subtle magnetism,” and the “capabilities of the landscape.” The Nature he speaks for is full of term agencies known and unknown.
The Belgian philosopher Isabelle Stengers also wants to the beloved, question those who speak “a word” for Nature, to understand what authorizes certain people (usually scientists) to speak for nature, and to algebra term paper, what extent their words are final. Her “Cosmopolitical Proposal” advocates listening to multiple voices speaking for paper apa format or with multiple constituencies, articulating alliances, and arriving at paper an often brief consensus. Essay. She opens with a question–“How can I present a proposal intended not to say what is, or what ought to be, but to provoke thought; one that requires no other verification than the way in which it is paper able to ‘slow down’ reasoning and create an career opportunity to arouse a slightly different awareness of the problems and situations mobilizing us?” Her friend and mentor Gilles Deleuze once characterized Nietzsche’s philosophy as a “series of darts” –provocations to thinking– rather than a system or method. Alfred North Whitehead, Stenger’s other, more distant mentor, spoke of paper philosophy as “lures for topics thinking.” All three–Whitehead, Deleuze, Stengers–offer up concepts, a tool-box, to help do philosophical work. Paper. They give no absolute position from which to speak absolutely, but they do point out a branching path where thinkers can, in Thoreau’s word, saunter. The beginning of “On Walking” is a critique of an overly sedentary existence promoted by the business economy, but it is also a description (sometimes prescription) of proper walking attitudes. In the latter part he echoes his mentor Emerson’s plea in the “Divinity School Address” for a unique American literature and philosophy, one partaking of and maybe even articulating the wild land they now occupy. This notion of “the wild” is a fraught concept, one subject to many different appropriations, most notably to support eco-political movements advocating for setting aside wilderness areas. His line “in wildness is the preservation of the world” is often misquoted as “in wilderness…” Without doubt, one could find elements of a Thoreavian wild in a vast wilderness, but it also is to be found in the “civilized” world: in swamps or low spots on farms, at the edges of fields, in the margins of physics thesis title cultivation (agricultural and social). Thoreau himself, as Walden demonstrates, seeks out the wild and lives it on those very margins. He notes in paper “On Walking,” “For my part, I feel that with regard to Nature, I live a sort of border life….” His wild is not an inhuman isolation from the tame or civilized, but instead is a force which gives energy, vitality, or following Whitehead, articulates the “ultimate metaphysical ground, the creative advance into novelty.” The wild is a source, a wellspring that creates in spite of the cultivation that civilization demands.
It is the comparing and contrasting animals, tang of the wild apple or the wilding potato growing on the edge of a cultivated Peruvian field ready to term paper, bring new taste and characteristics to essay, the dinner table. A place to locate this is in term one of his seemingly offhand rants near the arts culinary, end of the essay where, as a counter to an American obsession with the practical (or as a proleptic critique of the neo-liberal University), he calls for a “Society for the Diffusion of term paper Useful Ignorance.” He immediately renames ignorance “beautiful knowledge” to distinguish it from the practical, but it could just as easily be called “the wild” as he follows his proposal with a Whitmanesque image of cattle who find vitality in the new spring grass after a winter of essay hay. Ignorance can take many forms, and usually not particularly positive ones, but Thoreau’s is a plea for algebra thought freed from the cultivation of a rigidified civilization, of one that only arts career listens to narrowly defined expert voices speaking an officially sanctioned discourse. Useful ignorance is a form of naivete, a voice that can produce insights that, because unrecognized, are not available to the expert witnesses. Algebra Term. The central figure in Stenger’s “Cosmopolitical Proposal” is the idiot, a conceptual persona she takes from Deleuze (who appropriated it from Dostoevsky). In Stenger’s hands, the idiot is the tentative, unauthorized voice who asks non-sensical or useless questions. Idiotic questioning is two different a way to strip bare the categories of sense and use.
She does not deny knowledge but does want a fuller understanding of the ground on algebra which it stands: “We know, knowledge there is, but the idiot demands that we slow down, that we don’t consider ourselves authorized to on showbiz, believe we possess the meaning of what we know.” Stenger’s idiot is a practitioner of algebra paper Thoreau’s useful ignorance, or perhaps is Thoreau himself–someone willing to ask naively the obvious question, who slows down a railroaded consensus. Thoreau is the consummate railroad philosopher. Regarding transportation to Fitchburg he notes it would take him a day to earn train fare, but he could walk it in a day, so he opted for the second. The Beloved Country. A form of algebra term paper willful perversity perhaps, maybe a refusal to participate in an unnecessary economy, from most perspectives the action of an idiot, but definitely a way to slow down. Physics. In her plea for slow science, Stengers quotes Whitehead’s critique of a narrow professionalism: “minds in a groove. Each profession makes progress, but it is progress in its own groove. (…) The groove prevents straying across country, and the abstraction abstracts from something to which no further attention is given.” Inherent in this position is the desire to move transversally, as Thoreau advocates, to set out across the fields instead of paper following established roads, and as a consequence to slow down enough to physics thesis, pay due attention– not just to the world encountered but also to the thinking produced by that practice. Naive questioning, slowing down, paying due attention: these are pedestrian practices. In “On Walking” Thoreau notes, “My desire for knowledge is intermittent, but my desire to bathe my head in atmospheres unknown to my feet is perennial and term paper constant.” This is an essay two different contrasted to Emerson’s more famous transparent eyeball, “I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part of God.” Thoreau is algebra term paper not after knowledge (at least none of the officially authorized kind), nor does he attain airy transcendence. Instead he wants his head to go where his feet can take him, to those little known places he sought out while sauntering in thesis title the woods surrounding Concord. He opens “On Walking” tracing an etymology of saunter, first claiming it describes someone going to Sainte Terre, to the Holy land.
Then he sets out the possibility it comes from term paper, sans terre, to be without land, which “will mean, having no particular home, but equally at home everywhere.” Ultimately Thoreau prefers the former, but I like the latter because of the double logic it proposes. To be without ground is to acknowledge that the position from observation essay topics, which you think and speak is solid but transient. To saunter intellectually is not to be arrogant but instead tentative. You can venture to “speak a word for Nature,” but you cannot utter the algebra paper, definitive term. You cannot close off the conversation. Easy. The second half of the logic is that such groundless can still provide a home, that we don’t have to root ourselves in the village, condemned to repeat the same formulae, nor do we have to run on the grooved rails of the term, train. Instead we can slow down, saunter across places hitherto unrealized, looking for knowledge of the wild, or even better, wild knowledge. T. Hugh Crawford. Christo’s “Floating Piers”: Learning to Walk. Finding myself in on showbiz Milan after nearly a year of long-distance trekking, I couldn’t pass up the chance to walk on algebra term paper water.
Christo’s latest large-scale installation–the Floating Piers–was open on nearby Lake Iseo. Though not as well-known as its counterparts–Como or Lugano–Iseo is a charming lake with a large island. Instead of the on showbiz, usual ferry, the Floating Piers provides travelers with a bridge from the mainland town of Sulzano across to algebra, the island. The lake is in a quiet wine district, and Christo’s installation threatens to overwhelm the region’s infrastructure. Country. Arriving at Sulzano feels more like walking into carnival than an art exhibition. It was a brutally hot day, and transport included a packed shuttle bus from satellite parking lots. Given the difficulty of travel and temperature, the visitors were in remarkably good humor, each showing a quiet expectation or maybe just plain curiosity about what they were about to algebra term, experience. Christo’s installations tend to be visual–the many draped buildings, his wrapped islands, and essay the canyon curtain–so The Floating Piers is a divergence.
It is participatory, a set of bridges that are meant to be crossed by algebra term walkers, pilgrims of all types learning to observation, walk on a strange cloth-covered contraption. The installation was first conceived in term paper 1970 by Christo and his collaborator Jeanne-Claude. A three kilometer set of bridges, it links Sulzano with the island town of Peschiera Maraglio and the tiny Isola di San Paolo. Open from June 18 until July 3, Floating Piers is 220,000 high density polyethylene cubes covered by 100,000 square meters of write animals fabric and held in place by 200 anchors. With a color that approaches school-bus yellow, the bridges float just above the water’s surface with edges tapering to a zero point where the term paper, water laps and, on a hot day, invites.
The site and surrounding towns have been overrun with walkers. In the first five days alone, 270,000 vistors arrived, far exceeding all estimates and prompting nighttime closures to enable the towns to clean up and reset for the next day’s onslaught. Planning walks usually involves maps with trail distance in kilometers and hours, but also topography with details on elevation gain and loss. The one bit of information often unavailable is a description of surface. A well-made trail up a steep incline can often be hiked faster than a poorly made level path. College Apa Format. The Floating Piers has no elevation change. It is algebra paper a two-dimensional plane perfectly level with the surface of the water, its colors forming an abstract diagram to be seen from above. Its bold diagonals are a striking sight, but the arts career culinary essay, the surface walked is algebra term another matter. It is hard to describe the sensation of crossing. It is a flexing, forgiving surface that enables walking in any footwear (or with none at all) and write and contrasting animals the map provided does not so much guide as it abstracts.
Many of the visitors are local tourists, but there are also pilgrims from all over the world. Algebra Term Paper. Walking there is to hear a cacophony of languages and easy observation essay topics experience a cacophony of walking styles. Seasoned trekkers tend to move rapidly and term directly, always aware of college research where they are on a trail and term when in high traffic areas paying close attention to the movement of others. It is thesis a full-bodied dance that is direct but accommodating, open but precise. In contrast, The Floating Piers is walked by a variety of people, each struggling to term paper, find their pace in relation to a crowd which moves to different rhythms or does not move at all (Selfie sticks have replaced trekking poles on this trail). The paths on arts career culinary the islands vary in width, but the floating bridges themselves are a uniform 16 meters wide. Algebra Paper. Covered in on showbiz what they describe as a “simmering yellow” fabric, the walkway provides only algebra term paper one sense of directionality–across the lake and back. Write Comparing Two Different. The surface itself is unmarked, giving no indication of where to algebra term paper, walk.
I recall hiking the Ninety-Mile Beach on the northernmost part of New Zealand. In that wide expanse of sand, I found myself unconsciously following any track that appeared–human footprints, tire marks, even the seaweed of the tide line–if only to easy, find a sense of algebra paper where and how to walk. Christo’s walkers are given a blank space. The bridges are not long distance trails, nor are they city streets or the arcades of a shopping center. They have a direction, but give their walkers no directions. What is most striking about the project surface is that, like water, it is not a rigid plane. The piers flex, float, and move according to their own complicated pattern, one that is influenced by the movement of the lake surface, the wake of college outline boats, and the wind, but also by the footsteps of the term, many walkers. If you expect them to follow a pattern based on a human scale, you are in for a surprise as the surface rises to thesis title, your foot or withdraws from term paper, it with no discernible rhythm. Consequently, the crowds moving in either direction (in or out) have to animals, navigate the unpredictability of their fellow walkers and algebra term the chaotic flexing on the surface on which they stride. Perhaps it is the school-bus yellow, maybe the sharp and bold abstraction of its lines, or just the sheer child-like playfulness of the entire project, there is something about the Floating Piers that turns its users into children. It is a playful concept, but more fundamentally its users, like toddlers, must learn to negotiate the surface where they walk and the people with whom they share that surface.
The day I walked the Floating Piers, I got to tiny Isola di San Paola (the most playful section of the project) to find a pontoon workboat floating just off the yellow fabric coast. Christo was there with guests, including a man wearing yellow pants that appeared to be made from the bridge cover fabric (I’m sure they had a few extra yards lying around). There is nothing unusual about an artist visiting his own installation, but there was something poignant about this. Were it the opening for an earlier work, Christo would have been occupying more or less the same perspective as his audience. Here the artist was offshore looking obliquely at the planar surface of his art, but primarily he was looking at the walkers on that plane who were turning his bridges into bridges. The floating piers are just beautiful abstract surfaces on career culinary essay the lake surface until the algebra paper, walkers arrive. Then the paths become paths, the toddlers learn to walk, and on showbiz a new, albeit temporary, community is formed. Footpaths are humanity’s first writing, producing marks on algebra term the land that tell others where to go, and they, by going, create community. Paths exist through use.
Christo’s are temporary and the community of walkers formed is on showbiz transient, but the lesson remains. Algebra Term Paper. Given a sufficiently estranging path, we can become toddlers and essay once again experience the wonder that first walking brings. They were burning the fields in Helambu, mountains terraced like a 3-d model of a topo map but nearly as old as human history. First they burn the chaff and straw, then cultivate with short-handled heavy-headed hoes, a design older than the millennium. In the term paper, larger fields, a wooden plow is pulled by a yoke of yak, writing simple lines in the soil with a metal tip tapering to a plain point. The plows are carved from a small tree-trunk with a heavy root angled by the winds, water, and rocks where it grew. A handle is mortised at the butt to observation essay, give the algebra term paper, plowboy control over comparing and contrasting depth and algebra paper direction.
The ashes from the title, burn are turned into paper, the soil, but only after the on showbiz, fire has filled the sky with a choking smoke. In the villages they heat and cook with wood, often in rooms without chimneys. Instead a hole up in the eaves helps draw some of the smoke from the kitchen. The paths that wind between villages and farms are littered with empty coughdrop blister-packs, an attempt to sooth the irritation of indoor and outdoor smoke. The latter was completely unexpected as I climbed the trail, finally gaining 3690 meters of algebra altitude. Higher than I had ever been but still not above tree line. The forest remained primarily pine and arts essay juniper, though becoming more scrub-like as the afternoon progressed.
Ahead was a peak the path would go around, but I could see a recent rockslide had sheared off most of its face and the trail rerouted at that point. The foot stones were fresh and there were small cairns signaling the algebra paper, way, but as it turned out, in order to get past the slip, the path went almost to the peak. My altitude sensitive lungs went on full alert. Until this point, the physics title, hour estimates printed on my map had been spot on, but the walk from term, Mangengoth to Thadepati Bhanjyand was listed as one hour and took two and a half. Not sure what the kilometers were, but at this altitude they are of little consequence. The only thing that mattered was the air.
It is not surprising that Buddhist meditation practices focus so intently on breath. Spiritus is elusive at altitude. Just moving about in the Himalayas is an exercise in career culinary breathing, a palpable factor in all activity. Visiting the gompa at algebra Bhraga required not just a long walk up the Annapurna Circuit but also slow acclimation. The general rule of thumb is not to gain more than 1000 meters altitude per day, and on showbiz I was by paper no means pushing myself on arrival at the village. On learning I could see the country, inside of the algebra term, monastery which was perched high on a cliff above the village, I had to hustle to get up to it in time.
Almost immediately, oxygen debt crushed my stamina. Culinary Essay. I slowed and methodically made my way to the entrance where I was met by an ancient Nepali doorkeeper who instructed me to remove my shoes and compose my breathing, then led me into an exuberance of Buddhist statuary, imagery, and manuscripts. Term. I wandered in college research paper outline apa format a daze, enthralled at the spectacle and the history it contained (I’m sure lack of oxygen contributed to that daze). On leaving, she tied a thin, blue-green string around my neck (which remains to this day), and I breathed one last time the smell of incense and ancient learning before descending some meters to the village and its relatively richer oxygen world. Bhraga is on the Annapurna circuit in Nepal. Algebra Term. As a child I was a voracious reader in a house with a decent but limited library. I remember Maurice Herzog’s account of the ascent (and more important, descent) of Annapurna in the first expedition to paper apa format, summit what was then the highest mountain yet climbed by Western mountaineers. That story remained tucked in my psyche, resurfacing when I read about the circuit. I’ve been trekking long enough to have chucked the “bucket list” mentality over the edge many years ago.
My idea was to walk around the Annapurna massif as a sort of pilgrimage, like the Buddhist circumambulation of term paper Mt. Kailash. In my pilgrimage, I would see the villages, people, and countryside but also the places Herzog’s expedition passed, and I would see the mountain that bulked so large in my childhood imagination. Except for ice gear, I carry the equipment necessary to meet most challenges on a trail. The description of the Annapurna Circuit was quick to point out that people of moderate fitness were capable of finishing, so I didn’t worry much about the specifics. My first days out the beloved were uneventful, walking without a guide on a well-marked, well-travelled path. As the days passed, I encountered many of the same trekkers, listening to their conversations which almost never mentioned the walk itself. Term. Instead, like a mantra, they repeated the words “Thorung La,” a pass that, at 17,769 ft., was the paper, highest point on the circuit.
It soon became clear most of my hiking colleagues were focused almost exclusively on the challenge of that pass. Along with the 1000 meter rule, everyone hydrated relentlessly and many ate lots of garlic, a folk remedy I was most happy to term, follow. Morning eggs in the guest houses were usually covered in garlic. Some were also taking Diamox (acetazolamide), a drug used to treat Marfan’s syndrome and some forms of epilepsy. It is a diuretic which tends to acidify the blood, causing deep breathing and increasing the blood’s oxygen supply, so it supposedly works as prophylaxis for mountain sickness. For these people, a pilgrimage around and through a remarkable landscape had been reduced to hemoglobin, to blood and research paper outline apa format oxygen. My passage over Thorung La was uneventful. A beautiful but bitter cold day, a long steady climb followed by a hasty descent to Kagbeni, it was satisfying and, by walking at a judicious pace, my blood remained well-oxygenated. A few weeks later, on another continent I came to understand thin air.
I began the algebra paper, final ascent of Mt. Outline Apa Format. Kilimanjaro at midnight, but not before asking the guides about the algebra paper, rationale for such a strategy. We had already spent days acclimating, and it seemed unwise to disrupt diurnal patterns just at the moment we were readying for the big push. They offered three explanations, each plausible, but not entirely convincing. Arts Career Essay. The hike up from Kibo huts to Uhuru peak is less than six km with a little more than 1000m altitude gain. The summit is algebra term paper 5895m (19,341?). For comparison, Everest is easy 29,029?, and algebra paper the highest peak in North America is Denali coming in at 20,310?. So the first answer had some merit– seeing the sunrise from the crater rim is an incredible experience.
People walk up Poon Hill in Nepal starting at 4:00 am to see the sun rise over the Annapurna massif and Daulighiri, but that is a well-marked and fairly short track. Another reason: it was the wet season and the rains tend to start mid-morning, so they wanted to get up and then off the mountain early. The last, which seemed both patronizing and nonsensical, was actually the best. Hikers cannot see what they are climbing in the dark. Observation Essay Topics. It might only be six kilometers and only 1000 meters elevation gain, but it is straight up the paper, highest mountain in write an essay animals Africa. Algebra Term. At 11:00, we had coffee and biscuits and by the stroke of midnight were walking out of camp, each wearing a headlamp directed at research outline apa format our feet. We soon discovered that rain the day before was snow up high, and within the algebra, hour we were in ankle-deep powder, each of us following single file, seeing only the terrain illuminated by our headlamps and concentrating on the footprints directly in front of physics us. This went on for six hours. Initially, I treated it the way I do all long treks.
Walking is an opportunity to think, but walking and thinking at term high altitude is a curious and research outline subtle experience. I found while I did the algebra term paper, Kili shuffle–placing one foot directly in front of the essay topics, other, heel to toe with no space between (very much Pink Floyd’s The Wall walk)–I could maintain a train of thought, but soon the lack of paper oxygen took effect, and I could only career culinary focus on the feet stepping in front of me, step after step, hour after hour. Climbing in snow is paper physically taxing, and as the air thinned, every misstep or slip interrupted carefully patterned breathing which in turn made me stop to pant, trying to get oxygen balance back. Arts. The new snow slowed our pace, so we arrived at Gilman’s point on the crater rim much later than expected. Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano– a singular peak rising out algebra of the Rift Valley that characterizes the geology of thesis East Africa. We rested briefly, and for term paper the first time could see beyond the halos of our headlamps. The sun washed across the landscape, making shadows of unbelievable intensity and finally breaking the monochrome of our night walk. By now I was really feeling the altitude. I had crossed Thorung La with little distress, but given the exertion of climbing in snow, I was gasping for air and arts career culinary essay feeling many of the symptoms of altitude sickness.
Nevertheless I continued the last bit of the climb around the crater rim to Uhuru point. There were congratulations all around, but what stunned us all was the sheer magnificence of a clear, rainless morning looking out over the glaciers surrounding a breathtaking crater (and I mean breathtaking in its most literal sense). Algebra Term Paper. We soon turned back– lingering at the peak invites many problems including body-temperature drops and perhaps more time sliding down the incline in the rain. We made our long return to Kibo huts, and each step brought more oxygen. After a glorious hour resting, we geared back up and made the descent to Horombo, had supper and slept the sleep of the dead. Emily Dickinson once wrote that “the brain is wider than the sky.” On Kilimanjaro, I learned that a tired, physically stressed, and oxygen-starved brain is essay on showbiz no wider than the faint outline of a headlamp illuminating footsteps in the snow. Air signals its presence in other ways, perhaps most directly by moving. In Nepal climbing to Tilicho Lake, I watched the snow on a mountainside break off, sliding into a ravine a couple of algebra kilometers from where I walked. There was no danger the avalanche could reach the trail, but in a few moments the clear sunny day was filled with airborne ice crystals moving east fast and wet.
About 20 minutes later, the same ricocheting wave recrossed the path, this time moving west, once again covering me completely in ice. The Tongiriro Crossing on New Zealand’s North Island involves altitude change though nothing like Kilimanjaro. The edge of the Red Crater is culinary essay a little over 1800 meters and algebra when I was to cross during my hike of the Te Araroa Trail there was still snow, a lot of topics it. Tongariro is one of those hikes that swiftly changing weather can make dangerous. Algebra Paper. My morning started out cold (down at low elevation) and wet, though there were glimpses of sun, and on showbiz the cloud cover did not look significantly different from paper, a typical New Zealand morning in late Spring. My plan was to first hike to the Ketatahi Hut which was about 18 km, so I hoped to get there mid-morning and would then have a sense of how the weather would play out. Early on the hike went well, a long road walk followed by well-designed and maintained paths. When I emerged from the observation, bush and term started hiking the alpine tundra the temperature started to drop, and the wind picked up. Still, I was well dressed in comparing wind/rain gear, ready for what I thought would come, but the rain intensified and the wind was soon gale force.
At times it actually pushed me off the trail. The last kilometer or two were otherworldly– horizontal rain, freight-train wind, and no clear end in sight. Algebra Term. Then the hut appeared (not a moment too soon). The first thing I saw when I got to the door was a sign redesignating the on showbiz, hut as a temporary shelter. It was not an overnight site any longer because of a recent eruption which had dropped rocks through the roof and disrupted the foundation. I went inside, stripped off wet clothes, and with shivering hands made an early lunch. Algebra Term. As I did not get appreciably warmer–the wind by now was bashing the sides of the cabin– I spread out my sleeping bag on college outline apa format the table and algebra paper crawled in, which soon got my body temperature to essay, a better range. Before long some Department of Conservation people showed up to work on the hut, surprised to find anyone there in such weather and algebra paper relieved that I had decided to return down the way I had come. I packed up, headed back into the maelstrom, and could feel the temperature creep up as the easy topics, altitude decreased.
While hiking back down the mountain, I thought about Thoreau in The Maine Woods where he climbed Katahdin, though he did not achieve the summit. Paper. His description of the culinary, mountain is some of paper his best writing, and I was thinking about how to him Katahdin was a cloud machine, making its own weather. He did not end up posing at the top for pictures the way Appalachian Trail thru-hikers do today, but he experienced the mountain in all its weather fury. From that perspective, his was a successful climb, as was mine that day on topics Tongariro. Another of Thoreau’s mountains is New Hampshire’s Mount Washington, a place where the term paper, air asserts itself insistently. It is a mountain with a constant flow of tourists. I remember one day climbing it through the Tuckerman Ravine with one of my sons. Like Katahdin, Washington is also a cloud factory, so on nearing the summit the mist came in. Tom asked if we were close, and I responded that I could see something just ahead.
As it turned out, that something was the bumper of a car. We summited through a parking lot, then stood next to tourists in street clothes waiting our turn to snap a picture by the sign at the peak. Flat and exposed, Washington is situated at title a point where major storm systems from the algebra term, south and the west converge. It can have temperatures as low as -35 and, at 231 mph, the highest wind speed ever directly recorded by humans. It is no wonder that in the past 150 years, almost the same number of people have died on thesis title its slopes. Algebra Paper. Like Tongariro, the weather changes rapidly, with storms scudding in at an unheralded pace. Standing at the peak, ignoring the cog-railway and full parking lot, watching the clouds mark the the beloved, wind direction and speed, is to algebra term paper, experience air as air. Today when people speak of a medium they might be thinking of topics a trafficker in the spiritual realms but more likely are referring to a communication medium. I currently teach in the newly re-named School of Literature, Media, and Communication, where media finds itself squarely in the middle, sandwiched between an elderly media form and the study of how to term paper, get the message through as clearly as possible. At least since McLuhan (actually since Plato), people concerned with effective communication focus not just on the message but also on its medium since, obviously, its specific affordances configure the messages that pass. Arts Career Culinary Essay. Idealists desire transparency, the mythic state where the term paper, medium recedes to easy, such an extent that the message stands clear for algebra paper all to see and understand.
In Remediation , my old friend and colleague Richard Grusin makes the distinction between immediacy and hypermediacy, where the first characterizes the push for transparency while the second calls attention to both the limitations and the affordances of the medium itself. Similar to Heidegger’s tools “ready-to-hand” and the beloved country essay “present-to-hand,” immediacy and hypermediacy are engaged in a constant dance. One leads for a moment, then the other, as the message is passed and algebra term its medium registered. In the last half-century, we have come to think of information moving through a medium as fundamental to the maintenance of society and vital for continuing life through our very genetic structure. In a climate-controlled environment (at least in the West), air rarely shows itself as hypermediacy. Career. Instead it seems textbook immediacy. Indeed, except for term paper startling instances of dense air pollution (or to a trekker on the Helambu circuit during spring field preparation), the primary characteristic of air is easy observation essay its transparency. Something invisible, beneath notice, surely does not carry a message of consequence, but of course it does. We respond somatically to term paper, changes in air pressure. We feel deep in and contrasting two different animals our souls the freshness of a clear cool morning.
We feel the oppressive weight of water on a humid day, and term paper a stiffening breeze signals a change in write an essay comparing and contrasting two different the weather. The down on our cheek trembles in the slightest current of air or shift in temperature, but what makes air so clearly a medium is its very transparency. To experience the big outside on an exceptionally clear day is to be enthralled by its clarity, by exactly that which you cannot see. As William Carlos Williams says in the first poem of Spring and All : under the surge of the algebra paper, blue. mottled clouds driven from the. northeast—a cold wind.
Now the grass, tomorrow. the stiff curl of wildcarrot leaf. One by one objects are defined — It quickens: clarity, outline of leaf. The transparency of the air there does not withdraw in the face of the immediacy of the object–it produces it, enables it, and essay on showbiz mediates it. Air is our first medium. T. Hugh Crawford.
Walkers Have Never Been Modern. for Bruno Latour. Robert MacFarlane along with Stanley Donwood and Dan Richards wrote a beautiful little book called Holloway . A holloway is “a sunken path, a deep shady lane. A route that centuries of foot-fall, hoof-hit, wheel-roll, rain-run have harrowed into the land.” In other words, a holloway embodies and records a human history of term paper acting in and with the non-human world, a world made of earth, stone, water, but also animals, wheels, wagons, and tools. I recently finished the Camino Frances path of the Camino de Santiago, crossing the the beloved country, Pyrenees near St. Term. Jean-Pied-de-Porte and walking through Pamplona, Burgos, and Leon to Santiago de Compostela, and an essay comparing two different animals then beyond to term paper, the Costa de Morte, to Muxia and Finisterre (900 kilometers). Though its paths are not usually as deep as the holloways MacFarlane explores in England, they record a deep history, one of pilgrimages to physics thesis, Finisterre that even predate the Christian Era. While parts today must be re-routed to newer paths to avoid trekking on what have become major highways, the term paper, Camino breaths a complex history, passing by every church in its path, but also circling natural formations, avoiding rugged climbs, reflecting the wisdom of the choices made by country essay centuries of walkers. With each step, the term paper, modern peregrino is arts career constantly aware of those years of wear, an overwhelming sense of human and nonhuman history. Some years ago, I hiked the Appalachian Trail with one of algebra paper my sons, a trek markedly different from the Camino for a number of reasons. Over 2000 miles, the AT winds its way up the east coast ridge of the United States, from Georgia to Maine, never very far from large population centers but on land that is largely depopulated, giving little sign of its ever having been occupied.
There are of course moments when hikers feel history. Passing through northwestern Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland is a lesson on significant battles of the American Civil War, but often the arts culinary essay, sense of hikers, one reinforced by the designers and algebra term maintainers of the trail, is that they are walking in wilderness, a place devoid of human history. This mood is college paper outline even stronger for those hiking the algebra paper, other two major US long-distance trails–the Pacific Crest and the Continental Divide–both of write an essay comparing two different which indulge walkers in the fantasy that they are walking where no one has walked before. Term Paper. Unlike the intensely historical nature of the Camino, the trope of American long-distance trails is uninhabited wilderness. Native-American habitation has been literally and arts career culinary symbolically erased from that landscape. American hikers, particularly those from the west, tend to fetishize this blankness, using human absence as a form of valuation, what is called the algebra paper, “fallacy of the wilderness.” It is as if there have been no “centuries of foot-fall, hoof-hit, wheel-roll, rain-run.” It may seem odd to turn to a French philosopher of science and technology to talk about attitudes toward the wilderness and human history, but Bruno Latour, in his early book We Have Never Been Modern and the recent An Inquiry Into Modes of Existence gives a vocabulary to help frame these observations. At the risk of oversimplification (which is inevitable given the arts essay, length of this essay), We Have Never Been Modern is a critique closely related to Alfred North Whitehead’s notion of the “bifurcation of nature” which initially was a criticism of the philosophical distinction between an object’s primary and secondary qualities but eventually becomes a tool to dismantle the subject/object distinction that has dominated modern philosophy at least since Kant which is the paper, avowed purpose of An Inquiry Into Modes of Existence. In Latour’s timeline, Modernism began (or did not actually begin) when Western philosophy accepted and enforced a rigorous distinction between the subject and the object.
An accomplished modernity would be one that could rigorously control the boundary between knowledge of the the beloved country essay, natural world and of human society. Latour’s insight is algebra term paper that while that wall might be tall and seemingly impregnable, it (like all geopolitical walls real or imagined) cannot stop subject/object hybrids (what he calls “quasi-objects” and observation essay “quasi-subjects”) from proliferating. No matter how hard the modern knowledge police work, the algebra term, subject/object distinction cannot be maintained for long. A nature untrammeled by human contact and history, one seen only from essay on showbiz, a scenic overlook or walked on paths that were never built for transportation or human labor, is the wilderness ideal. From that perspective, American long-distance trails mimic the modernity Latour decries, one that erases the history of the material world and the imprint of human thought and action on algebra paper the landscape. They are a celebration of Nature purged of all humans except the limited few with the physics, strength, stamina, time, and financial wherewithal to make the trek. The holloway is an algebra term paper example of the culinary, sort of paper hybrid Latour invokes to destabilize the easy observation topics, notion of an accomplished modernity. The holloway is objective, made of what we would call natural objects–dirt, stones, trees, roots, plants–and is term paper subject to natural forces–rain, wind, drought, frost heave. Arts Career Culinary. But it is paper also social as it was made and is maintained by human activity, serving as a conduit for labor, play, transportation, and human contact. To walk a path is to an essay two different, live its history and trip over its ruts, at the same time!
The modernity Latour critiques is one without history, and many ways it is one without thought. An accomplished modernism would be completely sleek, completely measurable, completely computable. It demands a seamless infrastructure, one that never calls attention to itself (see “Swinging Bridges”). In many ways, it is the algebra term, neo-liberal dream. Walking a holloway track– the the beloved, Camino de Santiago or Nepal’s Helambu circuit–is to feel a sedimented history, but also much more. When you walk long enough, modern concerns (I owe money, I have obligations, I must be productive) diminish and something else (without the I) opens up. A range of forces come to bear–gravity, oxygen levels, a fine-grained sense of the weather, attention to paper, flora, fauna, the impress of human activity, and memory. These and other factors constitute a mood that can open to reflection and ultimately open onto easy observation topics the possibility of thinking instead of having thoughts which, like ideas, become tokens to move about in some discourse to be measured and validated by a calculus of intellectual activity. The latter–thoughts–are prized by the neo-liberal academy as they can be converted into statements that circulate as a proxy for thinking and an emblem of intellectual activity, but are actually a faint shadow of the non-modern experience of thinking. Term. In that light, the academia’s long slide from celebrating wisdom to knowledge (18th century) to information (20th century) to data (21st century) is to the neo-liberal university, a place of constant self-assessment, periodic review, and impact analysis, a machine designed to halt thinking in college research paper outline its tracks. The optimism of Latour’s book is algebra term paper his claim that we have never been modern, that such a state can never be accomplished because the boundary between subject and career culinary essay object, self and world, is a chimera.
Purification gestures may create power relations and try to reduce thinking to having thoughts, but the algebra, hybrid I am calling thinking proliferates outside those boundaries, in a world that never was modern. On morning I woke in a Kathmandu hotel with no electricity which is country essay of course a regular occurrence in most of the paper, world. Technological differences tend to be what we first notice when visiting other places. Heading out of the city deeper into physics, the mountains is a move toward fewer conveniences and what seems a simpler life. Many writers, including some I highly respect, describe this as stepping “back in algebra time.” I understand what they mean. In isolated rural areas, the daily practices of the people living there are often quite similar to those of their ancestors. Easy Essay Topics. Farmers tilling narrow terraced fields with short-handled heavy hoes or metal-tipped wooden plows with a yoke of oxen is term paper a scene repeated for centuries if not millennia, so for visitors, it is essay of an antique simplicity. However the “back in time” attitude is the paper, result of a parochial sense of modernity. Yes, without doubt, the people living in, say, Melamchigaon are not working in sanitized, hermetically-sealed, climate-controlled environments staring at computer screens all day, but they live in the 21st century, surrounded by artifacts of that era including the ubiquitous steel and aluminum sheathing, cell phones, polyester jackets, airplanes and helicopters circling, soldiers patrolling with automatic weapons.
While they may not be in a high-tech envelope, they, like the vast majority of the world’s population, are in the larger 21st century world. Physics Title. The place where they live and term paper work is a hybrid of high tech and easy topics traditional practices that a narrow, hyper-modern view overlooks. What the “back in time” trope brings is a sense of distance from and a concomitant blindness to the hybrid nature of all our lives. Algebra Paper. Silicon Valley daily life is also full of activities long practiced by humans but overlooked in pursuit of a digital totality. Ezra Pound’s plea to “make it new” starts with an “it” that is modernized, but the “it” and all its deep history is sedimented in that “new.” Stepping into Melamchigaon is not a temporal disjunction. It is spatial. It is stepping into a different modernity or, to use Latour’s terminology, into the non-modern world where we have been all along. T. Hugh Crawford. Early on in Walden , Thoreau says, “It is true, I never assisted the sun materially in his rising, but, doubt not, it was of the last importance only to be present at it.” Presence at first light, ever elusive but somehow fundamental. Thesis. The labors of many people require they rise before the sun, but being up early does not necessarily put one in algebra term paper the presence of the the beloved, sunrise as an event, the first of the new day. Long-distance walkers are a privileged few as they, like Thoreau, are up and about, doing their daily labor before the sun, and most days find themselves lingering on term some path watching the unfolding of yet another rosy-fingered dawn.
In El Gamso on the Camino de Santiago, G–, my trekking partner suggested we get up early enough to see the sunrise from the arts, peak at Cruz de Ferro. Walkers are game for most things, but this was a pre-dawn trek of 15 km including a long steep climb. At 4:00 am, we were up and in a few minutes hiking fast and hard down the path, headlamps dimly lighting the term paper, way. It was smooth but still there was the occasional stumble. An advantage of the early time was a sky awash with stars, the write comparing and contrasting animals, Milky Way streaming through the middle, punctuated by the occasional meteorite, but we had to algebra, ignore the sight most of the time, focusing instead on our feet. There was less than 3 hours time to cover the distance. Before long a crescent moon rose at our backs, partly showing the way.
That time of on showbiz morning brings new sensations. Birds often unheard call out. Term. Different temperature gradients cross the skin. The earth and plants exhale unique odors. Setting a brisk pace, we made the physics thesis, the next town in good time but then had to climb a ridge in mud and flowing water, all as the horizon began to lighten ominously. Soon anticipation gave way to near despair.
Pushing on through the just-waking village of Foncebadon, we crested the main ridge, still short of Cruz de Ferre but finding an ideal place to see the algebra term paper, morning in. Sunrises happen every day but they are never the same. This day some low clouds ran interference as the orange intensified along the horizon, then a brilliant flash of yellow light turned our retinas purple. Soon the sun’s rays touched all around and, though we had not materially assisted in its rising, we had contributed our mite and received everything in return. It’s a strange feeling to have been up and toiling long and hard only to recognize that a new day has just commenced. We got up, stretched, and observation essay topics made our way to the Cruz de Ferre, an iron cross atop a tall wooden pole surrounded by a huge pile of rocks brought by peregrinos from all over the world. Paper. I found a rock by thesis the path and pitched it over paper my head onto the pile, while G– retrieved the one she had carried from some far away place. Anticipation frames a moment, but the arts career, moment always exceeds it. That morning while watching the algebra term paper, sunrise, I could not help but recall Holderlin’s hymn, “The Ister,” and Heidegger’s commentary in a book of the same name. I kept repeating the country, opening lines:
Command, presence, inevitability, anticipation, anxiety. Sunrise is but one in algebra term paper 24 hours of moments, but it is a singularity, an edge, a precise point. Essay. It predates industrial time and is measured not in seconds or minutes but in term duration–a taunt, stretched now that extends from the thesis, first bit of pure light to the emergence of the algebra term paper, sun as full body. The Beloved Country Essay. Heidegger, ever the interrogator, questions Holderlin’s opening line: “Yet if “the fire” comes of its own accord, then why is it called? The call does not effect the coming.” He is pursuing a broader philosophical point, but his questioning uncovers the walker’s dilemma, one phrased by Thoreau differently but essentially asking the same thing: what calls for presence at a sunrise? Eager to see the day, we pause watching colors, the false dawn, then the moment of pure light. Our eagerness calls on paper the sun to come, but it was the sun all along that brought us to this ridge. Presence at sunrise questions Being in ways few other quotidian actions can. The most temporal of events calls the essay, caller out of measured time into duree.
It is time as a thread stretched to absolute thinness. Clocks do not tick at term paper sunrise; time expands, filling the horizon. But fire can bring destruction, and to think the now is to think its end. Not far from the Cruz de Ferro is the Galician Atlantic coast and arts career Finisterre, the end of the earth in the Medieval world, the place where the algebra term paper, sun goes to die. On the Costa de Morte there once was the altar of Ara Solis dedicated to that daily dying sun, something pilgrims witness with each sunset. Sunrise is both inevitable and not, prompting questions of the end rather than the beginning.
Ben Schneider (of the band Lord Huron) asks, “what if the world dies with the easy essay, sunrise?” Not an anxiety strongly felt by those called to witness the beginning of the day, but a thought that lurks in the background. To anticipate an event is to entertain the algebra, possibility of it not happening. Essay On Showbiz. Heidegger also calls the now the “time of poets.” The sun calls the poets to write. It calls walkers differently, not to give words but more fundamentally to mark the surface of the earth, to write paths with bootsoles. To be present at the sun’s rising, the way is trod, the ridge is climbed. Algebra. To participate in the now of that moment is to be part of a longstanding community with feet maintaining the way and observation topics naming the paper, history of the land’s dwellers, sometimes going back millennia. The pause on the ridge gives the sunrise a silent voice. An event made reverent by the act of stopping to pay attention, to attend.
Deleuze asks of country essay Leibniz and Whitehead “What is an Event?” He then produces a multiplicity of answers, or, to put it the same way, his answer is a multiplicity with some convergence. An event is a gathering to an intensity, a set of forces singled out and directing attention. It is, in Whitehead’s terms, a concresence of elements, the active creation of the new and, I would add, the now which is always novel. Sunrise calls out a particular now for algebra paper our attention, showing by implication the production, the concresence, of all nows, however unremarkable others may be. Sitting there on that hill in that moment was an event. We did not materially assist the sun in its rising, did not wake the birds’ songs or paint the full palette of colors on the sky or cause the mist to rise from the college, plowed earth or bring both light and algebra term shadow to play across the land.
But we were there attending and easy observation essay anticipating. Already wide-awake from a long, hard hike, we were there to begin the algebra paper, new day. T. Country Essay. Hugh Crawford. During these long walks, I’ve been thinking about bridges. This essay would have appeared here, but my friend Ian and algebra the folks at the Atlantic decided to publish it there: http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/04/swinging-bridges/478980/ For related material, please see the Pointless Essays tab below. A Walker of on showbiz Rivers. Water–you’d have thought I’d had enough of it. Starting the Te Araroa on September 1st (against the advice of everyone consulted), I sloshed my way through the Herekino and paper Rataea forests, splashed up the Mangapukahukanu, climbed any number of peaks to admire the fog, and even tried (unsuccessfully) to wade across the mouth of the Okura just north of country Auckland.
The better part of my first two months on the Te Araroa was in a damp mist if not outright downpour. Term. But as spring gave way to thesis, summer, that fog lifted and water took on paper a new and surprising quality–indescribable beauty. Arts Career Culinary Essay. When hiking the Appalachian Trail in the United States, I crossed many rivers–from the white water of the Nantahala in North Carolina to the broad slow tidal waters of the Hudson just above New York City, or the algebra term, Kennebec in Maine where a paid staffer ferries thru-hikers across in a canoe. The Te Araroa has more than its share of thesis tough river crossings, particularly on the South Island–the Rakaia, Rangitata, and my personal nemesis, the Ahuriri–but along with crossings, the algebra, TA also brings opportunities to hike a river’s length, to become a walker of rivers. Each has its own attractions and devotees, but for me, nothing compares to arts career essay, the trek from St.
Arnaud along Lake Rotoiti then up the Travers River to its high mountain source. I woke early at the backpacker hostel in the Nelson Lakes Motel–one of those places cherished by hikers both for its amenities and the information passed between staff and fellow trekkers. Algebra Paper. Triple Hands Dave, a mountain guide who had also hiked the Appalachian Trail, was already cooking breakfast for culinary his crew. I made coffee while we talked about the term, differences between the AT and the TA. Little did I know, I was about to easy topics, start a day’s hike that would bring into stark relief those very differences. I soon packed up and headed out, but not to the trail just yet. One of my Te Araroa resolutions was to never eat food from algebra, my pack when there was a restaurant nearby, so I wandered down to the St. College Apa Format. Arnaud Cafe for the “big breakfast.” Hiking the Appalachian Trail brought few opportunities for a cafe breakfast.
It was almost always an early morning meal of cold poptarts or granola bars before plunging back in the wilderness, so lingering in a cafe was quite the luxury. The morning was cold as I sat at the picnic tables waiting for the cafe to open, using some free wifi to catch up on the news and staving off obligations back in algebra term paper the States. Soon I was tucking into a hearty breakfast followed by ice cream (on both the AT and the beloved country the TA, thru-hikers can eat as much as they want, a habit hard to break after returning to a more sedentary life). Soon the trail beckoned, and I started the thirty kilometer hike to algebra, Upper Travers Hut. The best beginning of a day, one that limbers up old arthritic joints, is an easy flat walk. Along the shore of Lake Rotoiti, one of the Nelson Lakes that give water a good name, the manicured path at times veers out onto gravel beaches giving a chance to linger and study the water’s color, texture, and the lake bottom which, regardless of easy essay topics depth, always seems just inches from the surface. By the time I got to the top of the lake, my legs felt young and the sun was shining brightly. There was a clear sense of adventure in the air, and the water was in paper the lake, streams and river, not coming down on me from the the beloved essay, sky.
The valley opened up as the trail crossed old pastures and paper followed the winding of the Travers, occasionally crossing by those swinging bridges that still give me pause. Walking those lower parts close to the river, I became increasingly aware of the water’s clarity, marveling at its almost unimaginable color. In the United States before the advent of brown ceramic insulators, rural electrical lines were strung on research outline blue-green glass knobs. Term. Today those knobs are collectibles (they make great paper weights). The one siting on arts career essay my desk at home echoes the color of the Travers River, but it is algebra term paper a only a feeble echo.
The hike took me from the an essay two different animals, lake to algebra paper, the headwaters, so the river’s life unfolded across the day, going from the staid maturity at the mouth to the rollicking turbulence of youth (yes, the water really does rollick over rocks). The trail would wind through a mixed forest then return to the water’s edge, each time bringing another striking view. The water was yesterday’s mountaintop snow, its taste icy and intoxicating. I stopped once to look into what must have been a deep pool, though it was difficult to judge the depth of something so transparent. Physics. As I stared at algebra term the bottom– perfect, round blue-gray stones– a trout caught my eye. Large, brown, at physics thesis title least 20 inches long and initially invisible, the algebra term paper, fish was holding steady in the current. Physics Thesis. I’m not a fisherman though at algebra paper that moment I wish I were. Instead I found myself thinking of easy observation essay Ernest Hemingway’s short story “Big Two-Hearted River” where Nick Adams, the protagonist, is recovering from the mental anguish of fighting in term paper World War I. He goes fishing in northern Michigan, and early in the narrative leans over a bridge rail to watch big trout in the current. Nick has travelled to this river hoping to find a way to steady himself. Similar to most long-distance hikers, his actions are studied–precise, almost ritualized. Taking care is a way for the beloved him to algebra term paper, control his situation and dampen down the uncertainty that wartime trauma has brought.
Standing there watching that particular trout, I began to physics, better understand Hemingway’s story. The Travers plunges down the mountain to the lake below, waterfall after waterfall. Even slack water is anything but slack. That fish motionless in the pool was swimming fast. Holding steady is hard work. Although smaller streams had been joining the river all day, toward late afternoon, they came rushing in louder. I could see the mountain looming after passing Hopeless Creek (one of many vaguely ominous place-names along the algebra paper, Te Araroa).
In contrast to the valley, the college research paper apa format, trail became steeper and more hazardous. Algebra Paper. The surrounding mountains cast dark shadows, and the trail itself made that familiar move–climbing above the stream then striking out level along an edge both narrow and slippery. I walked with care, staring at the path to keep steady, occasionally stopping to see where it led–a narrow chasm cut by slips, slides, and tumbling brooks. Then I saw, dropping straight off a mountain top, a waterfall with fully half of the water making up the the beloved country, Travers river at algebra paper that point. It was as if someone had just taken up half the river and easy essay leaned it against paper, a mountain, then let it fall, that blue-green water rushing vertically for what looked to be hundreds of meters.
There are no words. The day was winding down as I finally made my way to the hut which, to two different animals, my surprise, had smoke coming from the chimney. Hiking the algebra term, Te Araroa early in the season had been a solitary experience, so I wasn’t expecting company up near the top of Mt. Observation Essay. Travers. With the hut in sight, I decided to cut across a meadow in what seemed a more direct route only to discover the way I had chosen was more water than land, so I managed to soak shoes and algebra socks within yards of comparing and contrasting my destination. Algebra Paper. On entering I was met by a party–two Kiwi guides from Picton and four trekkers from Australia. On Showbiz. They had crossed the lake by boat and spent the previous night at John Tait Hut, clearly hiking a more civilized pace than I was, something evident by their buoyant good humor. Algebra Term. Overcrowded huts are a frequent conversation, particularly along the TA, but my early spring start had made most of my hut experiences lonely. I well remember two nights and one very long day at Waiopehu in essay the Tararuas where I found myself wet, cold, and alone staring at windows made opaque by driving rain, wondering what was out there. The morning it cleared brought a clear view of Levin, the algebra, town I had hiked out of two days earlier, looking entirely too close for all my hiking efforts. The Waiopehu and Upper Travers huts are fairly new, spacious, clean and inviting with the Upper Travers made even more so by the fire in the wood stove and a group of enthusiastic hikers.
I hung my wet clothes by the fire and instead of a solitary evening, I was treated with extra food, some wine, and lively conversation. The next morning, I woke to the expedition leader rekindling the fire, and easy essay soon the rest were rustling about. Algebra Paper. I packed, made breakfast with steaming coffee and even had a second cup, but that day my goal was Waiau Forks which required a climb over Travers Saddle and then, later in the afternoon, Waiau Pass. Title. I said my farewells and walked out into one of those days where the very air is like glass, imparting a sheen on everything within sight. The path soon climbed above the bush and spread out below was the entire river valley. Even though I couldn’t, it seemed as if I could see all the way back to Lake Rotitiri, so for a moment it felt as though I was looking at an illustration in term paper a topography book, one that explained the parts of a river valley, and I had the view from the title, top. All around were peaks, jagged rocks, some softened by the remaining snow– the snow that melted and fed the Travers. I lingered for a while at that point where the river began, then turned to algebra paper, start the long descent to the Sabine Valley, heading off for another day of walking rivers. T. Hugh Crawford. Mountains weep.
No sadness there, though they do have moods. Water seeps from cracks in an essay and contrasting two different rocks, down from algebra term paper, thin streams, or gurgles beneath mats of essay on showbiz moss. Paths are suddenly slick, the smell of the air changes as does the temperature. You become aware of term something that had been absent–or maybe it was following you all along, just beneath the surface. The skies were uncertain at Glenrock Stream. The wind picked up and rain spotted the stones, but there was also blue sky.
Morning showers on New Zealand’s South Island often dissipate quickly. The first part of the path was up through pastures. The hills were treeless and easy covered with brown grass. At erosion points, they showed their foundations: huge piles of paper gravel covered with a thin layer of soil and desiccated vegetation. Initially the trail was well-formed, so I soon arrived at the first hut, a tiny A-frame tucked up in a draw. By then, the rain had intensified, and I should have gotten out heavy weather gear, but after a brief stop, I pushed on fast for on showbiz the next hut–Comyns–which was only 6 km away. The wind over the open terrain was staggering and the rain horizontal, but it was at my back. Algebra Paper. I was already drenched, so I continued, covering the distance in a little over an hour, arriving wet, cold, and slightly hypothermic. Comyns is an old musterer’s hut made of corrugated steel siding bolted to easy topics, a structural steel frame. It rocks and creaks in the wind.
Even though it had a fireplace, there was no wood for algebra term heat or to dry clothes. Shivering, I peeled off wet layers, put on camp clothes, made soup, hung my stuff to drip, and crawled into a sleeping bag. Research Paper Outline Apa Format. It was Thanksgiving, and back home people were sitting down to a meal that was likely more than ramen noodles. Next morning I woke early, put on algebra my still-wet clothes and followed the trail as it led out over the hill behind the hut. There I found a branch of the Ashburton River which rushed knee-deep and bitter cold past steep boulders. At least today the sun was shining except in the deep shadows, but the on showbiz, trail forded the river all morning (a fellow thru-hiker later told me he had to wade it twenty-three times). My toes were soon numb–it felt as if I had boards strapped to my feet.
Mid-morning, the trail turned off to climb up Round Hill Creek which thankfully was narrow and easier to ford. Late that morning, I stopped and sat on a rock, turned to term, feel the warm sun on my face, and filled my water bottle. Without pausing to purify it, I drank draught after draught, marveling at the taste and reveling in the moment. Water is sublime–awful and awe-inspiring. Writing about the Cairngorms in Scotland, Nan Shepherd observes: “This water from the granite is cold.
To drink it at the source makes the physics title, throat tingle. A sting of life is in its touch.” Directly encountered raw, water stings and algebra soothes, incapacitates and satisfies. It is essay on showbiz multiple. At the extremes a dealer of death and bringer of life, but mostly is a constant, gurgling companion. Plutarch says of the first philosopher, “Thales the Milesian doth affirm that water is the algebra, principle whence all things in the universe spring.” For Thales, water is prime matter, but for us it is also the source of the an essay comparing two different animals, abstract philosophical ideals of term purity and clarity. Water is the basis for physics and essay topics metaphysics. Today we live different contradictions. Algebra Term Paper. Water is an image of purity and a source of fear, the vehicle of hidden contamination. When I was young, I hiked on my uncle’s land in Highland County, Virginia where a tiny creek ran down through a huge pile of rocks. My uncle, a physician, assured me the physics thesis, rocks filtered it, rendering it safe to drink. Term. I lapped it up, satisfied with his explanation and amazed by the taste, absent chlorine and fluorine.
I also remember by brother, on getting his driver’s license, taking jugs over into the Fort Valley to get Miss Lucy her spring water which, I am fairly certain, was meant for college her evening bourbon and branch. Even then, there were few places left where we could drink with confidence from the source. Now, frightened as we all are by all the outdoor organizations selling SteriPens and term paper iodine tablets, fearful of giardia, lead, and the thousands of other toxins we have poured into the water table (what exactly is “fracking fluid”?), water is treated with suspicion. The crisis in Flint, Michigan (which we all know will be followed by dozens of other political/infrastructure failures), combined with the real and imagined dangers of drinking the water in any country unless served in a sealed plastic bottle, makes it a substance that is anything but an image of purity. It was with a certain cavalier freedom that I indulged the streams of write comparing two different New Zealand, and of course it was risky. One morning hiking out of Locke Stream Hut, the algebra term, trail followed up a beautiful stream where I was ready to drink, only to discover in the headwaters a dead, bloated cow. Water is the universal solvent, but what washes away the residue our modern contamination leaves?
Ever the natural historian, Thoreau subjects Walden’s waters to rigorous analysis of clarity and color, claiming his pond first in the Concord Lake District regarding clarity and taste. He writes at length on the color of water, noting it is imparted by surrounding materials– trees, sand, sky. For Thoreau, Walden Pond has the perfect palette–blue sky, white sand, green trees–which reveals the depths of essay on showbiz those colors, and at the same time, the depths of the pond itself (which he constantly surveys). But minerals do impart color, and blue-green or, as the name clearly indicates, aquamarine, is a marker of clarity and purity. I had the chance to walk the Travers River in New Zealand from its mouth at Lake Rotoiti to its headwaters in the Travers Saddle. Term. There I saw for myself the color of an amazing water: thick blue-green swirling against essay, rough white rock. Resulting from dissolved minerals, glacier melt, reflection from the sky, vegetation above the paper, surface–no matter–it was the color of magic, and maybe even truth. To know such water is both to see through it and at the same time, to title, see its surface, another doubleness that confounds understanding. That day on the Travers, the algebra term paper, surface reflected and sparkled while the depths, on examination, revealed large brown trout, swimming static in the current. Thoreau, ever the master of seeing through and looking at offers a natural history of that surface: “It is a soothing employment, on one of those fine days in the fall when all the warmth of the sun is fully appreciated, to sit on a stump on such a height as this, overlooking the physics thesis title, pond, and study the dimpling circles which are incessantly inscribed on its otherwise invisible surface amid the algebra paper, reflected skies and trees.” Along with being the only widely distributed substance which expands when frozen (making it the observation essay topics, most potent of materials when it comes to shaping the world in term paper which we live), water’s surface tension and adhesive properties enact equally important transformations, including helping it defy gravity through capillary action as well as seep into easy essay, and through the most unlikely of places.
And, as Thoreau helps us see, water’s surface properties produce arresting effects. There is the hypnotic, psychically lapidary phenomena of ocean waves, but also the strangely textured, patterned ripples on the surface of a stream rolling over its bed. The uneven rocks, through the algebra paper, mediation of the water, produce a ridged geometry that is regular, complex, and utterly compelling. In a poem from The Whitsun Weddings , Philip Larkin also helps us recognize what water reveals, how it provokes human contemplation, and the beloved country gives access to a wider understanding: If I were called in. To construct a religion. I should make use of algebra water. Going to church. Would entail a fording. To dry, different clothes;
My liturgy would employ. Images of sousing, A furious devout drench, And I should raise in the east. A glass of on showbiz water. Where any-angled light. Would congregate endlessly. His water is not symbolic, metaphoric, or really even spiritual. Instead it is insistently physical. It souses and drenches furiously. It is matter, perhaps even Thales’s prime matter.
Along with Larkin, Nan Shepherd writes with insight and understanding about the materiality of water: “For the most appalling quality of water is its strength. I love its flash and gleam, its music, its pliancy and grace, its slap against my body; but I fear its strength.” Water is pliant, it has heft, and ultimately, power. In New Zealand, rivers braid over wide gravel valleys. At any given moment you may be walking on a smooth dry gravel bed or right beside a raging torrent. Absent swinging bridges, trekkers must cross rivers that demand care, something that increases in urgency as the braids get deeper and algebra wider. I remember crossing the Otira near the Arthur’s Pass with some fellow hikers where we locked arms through pack straps and marched across together. The man on write two different the downstream end who was both tall and algebra paper strong floated up from the riverbed and was only kept anchored by his grip and the feet of those of us who were upstream. On Showbiz. I did not have the same luck some days later trying to cross the Ahuriri. I woke that morning with a vague sense of dread as the term paper, descriptions of the trail were not promising.
My direction was up the saddle, down a river with no real trail to follow and college research outline apa format markers that were few and algebra term far between. Topping that off, there was a ford at the end of the day. Once again, it was cold and wet with rain falling as I headed up to the trailhead. The hike initially was uneventful, the career culinary essay, mist cleared, and the trail soon turned up toward the pass, following a rollicking stream through an old beech forest. Just before it broke out of the woods above bushline, I stopped at a big rock, got out my stove and made oatmeal and coffee. Term. Then I just sat, listening to the chorus of voices the water made. No monotony there, the sounds were polyphonic and complex. I could pick out a roar and a tumble, gurgles and drips–all playing in a water wall-of-sound. The following ascent was steep but by noon I was over the saddle and on my way down what turned out to the beloved essay, be a well-marked path. Algebra Term Paper. Soon I climbed another ridge where a large flat plateau opened up, a space worthy of a Sergio Leone film.
The area was high desert– a lot of water flowing through it but the soil was thin. In the bogs were masses of moss and springy grass and the edges of the streams had bushes and spear grass, but on arts on the algebra term paper, plain, the vegetation was crispy and thin except the dandelions which were blooming by the millions. They were different from the ones back home. Leaves were small and thick with no lobes. Instead, they spread out touching the ground avoiding the drying wind to get maximum sun and hoard moisture, waiting for the beginning of December to thrust up a single bloom on a two inch stalk. That day was all yellow. Later in the afternoon, the valley flattened, then opened to the river. My plan was to ford and thesis camp just on the other side, but I arrived to find a high, fast-running current.
To the west I could see a range of snow capped mountains melting fast in term the day’s hot sun. The river was milky green, so full of glacier melt (milk) that I could not see the bottom. Reading the braids is an art, seeking out points where the river splits into smaller crossable threads. Essay. I surveyed the scene and made several tentative forays, trying to get a good foothold and then cross, but each time I’d get about 1/4 of the way across and the bottom would drop out. The icy water refreshed after a hot walk across the plain, and the density of the water was palpable–so green but so opaque as to term paper, make it impossible to see my feet, let alone the bottom I needed to arts culinary, find. Term Paper. It became obvious I would have to walk along the essay, river instead of across. The map showed a bridge downstream, so off I went, first in the gravel river bed, then up an a small ridge, but the Ahuriri did what all rivers eventually do.
It swung over to my side and crashed hard against a cliff, making walking impossible. About 100 meters nearly straight up was a flat plateau covered in pine which I had no choice but to algebra paper, climb, then weaving in and out of trees, sticker bushes, pasture, barbed wire fences, fording a dozen streams, I finally got to the bridge, having hiked over 12 hours. Observation Topics. As it was late, I found a flat place to pitch my tent and a small stream for water, then retired exhausted. Some days, the power of the water exceeds all determination. Death by water is actually a frequent occurrence for solitary trekkers who ignore its “appalling quality,” but there are those who seek it out–the Thames in T. S. Eliot’s imagination or the Ouse in Virginia Woolf’s actual death. Still, we have turned water into a different medium for death. Global warming brings both unstable weather and drought to wider and wider regions.
In spite of its image of clarity and purity, we have decided to dump all of our shit into our water (wise civil engineer there). Today there is scarcely a source that does not require treatment, costing untold dollars in cleanup or for the medical care for algebra term paper those not lucky enough to have access. Or it simply hastens the death of those who have access to nothing but filth. Water wars are our destiny, and soon no one will understand that once water, in its natural, unpolluted state, had taste– a brilliant flavor– because the lucky few will only drink treated, purified, filtered piss rather than the write an essay and contrasting two different, stuff that once bubbled up from springs as if by magic. No, by magic. Algebra. Nan Shepherd sought out water we no longer know, “that strong white stuff, one of the four elemental mysteries, can here be seen at its origins.” If we no longer have water, do we have origins? Norman MacLean, a writer of rivers, expressed our current situation in the closing line of his novella A River Runs Through It : “I am haunted by write and contrasting two different waters.” His vision is the term, hauntology of a substance which, like all the previous doublings, is both absent and still present in the beloved country essay its very degradation. Algebra Paper. We are haunted by purity, clarity, and loss–an ecology verging on theology. If there is a god, it is water. T. Hugh Crawford.
What if the essay, transcendental field were actually a field? Not a disciplinary field or a term from physics, but instead a field humming and buzzing with life–soil, insects, plants, birds, animals (including humans), with a path through. Gilles Deleuze returns to fields, to immanence, in his last essay, “Pure Immanence: A Life.” It is a work of old age. Nearing death, A Life deserves to be thought. I have recurred to this essay many times over the years but have only algebra recently arrived at an age where I feel its richness, something I am still incapable of expressing even as it moves me. Country Essay. So instead I just want to make a tentative claim. Deleuze’s last essay can be read by walkers as their A Life. In those few pages (it is algebra term paper a remarkably compact piece), he does not mention walking, but does describe with uncanny precision the experience of research paper apa format non-self, the actual life that both appears and is performed by serious walkers. Another “pointless essay,” I’m not venturing any real claims beyond the one above. Instead I want to proceed in term the manner of write comparing two different animals my friend Isabelle Stengers and try to think with Deleuze (a strategy that requires many quotations, but it is the only way I know how to proceed). His opening sentences are by themselves a complete essay and a summary of A Life: “What is a transcendental field?
It can be distinguished from experience in that it doesn’t refer to an object or belong to algebra term, a subject (empirical representation). Easy Essay Topics. It appears therefore as a pure stream of a-subjective consciousness, a pre-reflexive impersonal consciousness, a qualitative duration of consciousness without a self.” Perhaps feeling old, Deleuze is making himself an algebra term ancient philosopher–a pre-Socratic–voicing a philosophy of immanence, a philosophy lost because of subjects set over against objects, lost because of the transcendence of the idea of physics thesis self. As he says in the Nietzsche essay included in algebra paper Pure Immanence , “The degeneration of philosophy clearly begins with Socrates.” So what would an a-subjective consciousness be? Practically it seems an impossibility as, at least to me, consciousness has always been the province of the self, but Deleuze want to speak of a transcendental field (and later pure immanence, the two of which veer together). So the question is whether it is possible to experience that field prior to or in spite of the fall into a subject-object existence. Clearly A Life is some sort of process of recovery. Sitting in a library reading Deleuze can twist the mind. We fall, we grope, yet a-subjective consciousness remains elusive. But the field begins to answer, the field crossed on foot in a long ramble where, as all long-distance walkers know, the subject-object dualism is college apa format nonsensical. Minds are in bodies, bodies are in clothes and term paper gear, which in turn are in the world. College Research Paper Outline Apa Format. By that I don’t mean the World writ philosophically large, but rather the physical world being occupied and traversed: this path, this air, these sounds which do not appear to the senses as an outside, an object to be surmounted, but instead are the algebra term, blurred zone of the essay, becoming of algebra term field.
Not being, not self– field! He follows this opening with the question that I, having grown up on American Transcendentalism, have always asked of this essay: “It may seem curious that the transcendental be defined by such immediate givens.” Although the Transcendental he struggles against is Kantian, let’s instead walk a bit with Emerson, because I don’t think Deleuze is terribly far from him here (though their paths soon diverge). The ecstatic moment of easy observation essay topics American Transcendentalism occurs in Nature : “In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life,–no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground,–my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space,–all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the algebra term paper, Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God.” Although I acknowledge the grammatical brilliance of his semi-colons, I have always had difficulty with the speed of Emerson’s movement. In a few short sentences, he goes from the woods to the “currents of universal being.” As an inveterate walker himself, Emerson knows crossing such distance takes time. The speed of walking is the speed of thought — something much slower than the rapid transcendence Emerson executes here. Country. Of course he has a philosophical point to algebra, make, one not to be found in the field but instead is enabled by the field. Emerson’s transcendence is a movement out of the title, “givens” of the paper, path he actually walks, so even though his loss of “mean egotism” seems much like Deleuze’s a-subjective consciousness, in the process it loses its immanence. So it is physics here that Emerson’s way diverges from Deleuze’s, but let’s follow it for just a moment to see how it aligns with, instead of moving away from Kant’s.
Still from Nature : “The first effort of thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. Until this higher agency intervened, the animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. When the algebra paper, eye of Reason opens, to outline and surface are at once added, grace and outline apa format expression. These proceed from imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of objects.” This in some ways accounts for algebra term his rapid transcendence. As is clear from essay on showbiz, his transparent eyeball and fear of paper losing his sight, Emerson wants to celebrate what the mind brings to perception of nature which is, from the outset, considered as spectatorial other. On Showbiz. Emersonian objects are refined by Emersonian subjects. Very much in a Kantian tradition, he wants to paper, celebrate what the mind brings to research paper outline apa format, those objects, the “imagination” and “affection” that temper the angularity of the material world. Term Paper. The other path, the one followed by Deleuze is through the country essay, “animal eye” along with all the other senses (including proprioception) that perform the crossing of the transcendental field.
Given Emerson’s spatio-visual metaphors, his transcendence is a move up, a change in perspective that provides an intellectualized understanding, a bird’s eye view of the field. Deleuze’s transcendental field is only known by keeping feet plodding along that muddy path. A serious walker–one who is tramping long enough for algebra term paper the daily world to vanish and to easy observation essay topics, also move beyond an paper aesthetic appreciation of “taking a walk”–can recover the transcendental field that pre-exists the subject-object distinction with a different form of research outline empiricism, one Deleuze calls transcendental: “We will speak of a transcendental empiricism in contrast with everything that makes up the world of the term paper, subject and the object. There is something wild and essay on showbiz powerful in this transcendental empiricism that is term of course not the element of simple sensation (simple empiricism), for an essay comparing and contrasting sensation is only a break within the flow of absolute consciousness.” Wild and powerful–a good way to describe what he opens up in algebra term paper this passage. Write Animals. Walking presses the question of consciousness (simple or absolute) and sensation, both of which push the boundaries of term paper A Life in the world. Where to begin? Maybe back in the field where we started. Without doubt, a general walk across that meadow, that field buzzing with life, is thesis title full of sensations perceived by all the aggregate entities found there equipped some sensorium (all the way to light sensitive minerals).
Deleuze’s absolute consciousness senses this but does not articulate a sensation as that pitches the absolute consciousness into algebra term paper, an opposition–sense/mind/subject vs. Easy. world/object. To have a sensation is to break from the field where all participate, interact, flow. It is instead, as he said earlier, “a qualitative duration of algebra term consciousness without a self [emphasis mine].” He continues: “Must we then define the transcendental field by a pure immediate consciousness with neither object or consciousness with neither object nor self, as a movement that neither begins nor ends.” Here it seems he is easy observation essay topics using the term consciousness as a placeholder, a concept, to describe this movement or becoming within the term, transcendental field. The Beloved. “Consciousness becomes a fact only when a subject is produced at the same time as its object.” The world of becoming he wants to describe happens before that fall into subject/object. In terms of paper human experience, such events come in waves. We walk across that field, the essay, low-growing shrubs crowd in the path. An unseen rock produces a stubbed toe, an intense sensation, articulating an immediate subject/object. No transparent eyeball or part or particle of God there.
Just you, your foot, and that damn rock. Algebra Term Paper. But what was happening before the unfortunate incident? Was the walker–bathed in college paper outline apa format light and heat, surrounded by sound–a subject living in an objective world? In Kant’s transcendental philosophy, yes. In Deleuze’s wild and powerful transcendental empiricism, no. We seem to be in some philosophical rare air here, but those out trekking for a long time, who move from the term paper, awareness that they are taking a walk into career, walking, find themselves living an act that is automatic, but not unconscious. Algebra Term Paper. This is why Deleuze’s idea is so wild and powerful. The walker is conscious, aware, but only easy topics occasionally finds herself as a subject set up against an object. An example: walking the Annapurna Circuit in Nepal which is considered by many to term paper, be one of the best long distance treks in the world. Because of the spacing of villages with accommodations, people usually circle the massif counterclockwise. A constant topic of write comparing two different animals conversation amongst trekkers is the Thorung La, a pass 17,769 ft. high which requires careful acclimatization to prevent altitude sickness.
A walker can approach a trek like the term, Annapurna Circuit as a circumambulation of a mountain, a way to pay respect to it and the path followed, a path “as a pure stream of a-subjective consciousness.” Or, because Thorung La is an easy essay obstacle, it becomes something to be conquered, a goal, something on a bucket list. There is perhaps no stronger subject/object distinction than man vs. Term. mountain. That sense of self is a youthful philosophy, one of essay challenges, finely hammered arguments, or treks with rigidly determined itineraries and carefully marked scenic overlooks. The older, pre-Socratic Deleuzian circumambulator passes landmarks, marvels at the eagles overhead, shrinks from high swinging bridges, and of course occasionally takes bearings, but most often feels the path, the air, and light. That experience is by no means a construction of self or a movement into a different world. Rather it is the experience of pure immanence. So what then is A [Walking] Life?: “We will say of pure immanence that it is A Life, and algebra paper nothing else.” The experience of physics title pure immanence is what he was sketching out earlier with the transcendental field. It is paper pre-subject/object and an essay and contrasting animals simply lived (not lived simply). The experience of pure immanence is in the walk in algebra paper the field not leading to higher consciousness but instead to A Life: “The transcendental field is defined by career culinary essay a plane of immanence and the plane of algebra term immanence by a life.” Here is the payoff: Deleuze executes an career essay ethical turn, wanting to embrace A Life not as a primitive experience prior to the celebrated constitution of the human mind, but rather as one I would call profoundly ecological. Algebra Term Paper. Such a life “is a haecceity [intensity] no longer of individuation but of singularization: a life of pure immanence, neutral, beyond good and evil, for it was only the subject that incarnated it in the midst of things that made it good or bad.” To experience the ethical not as a form of judgment but rather as a form of becoming both outside the trivially ethical good/bad and inside a transcendental field of fully engaged life, one experienced by many people in many places, but without doubt regularly lived by college outline apa format walkers. It is a life of traverse, of being always in-between: “This indefinite life does not itself have moments, close as they may be one to another, but only algebra paper between-times, between moments….” Walking is always between.
To stop at a scenic overlook, to college paper outline apa format, marvel at the [Emersonian] spectatorial, is to stop. To be in algebra a moment, not between. As he says in essay the essay on Nietzsche published in the same volume: “Modes of life inspire ways of thinking; modes of thinking create ways of living. Life activates thought, and thought in term paper turn affirms life.” A Life is not continuously lived, but when it occurs, it is performed: “A Life contains only virtuals. It is made up of virtualities, events, singularities.
What we call virtual is not something that lacks reality but something that is engaged in the process of on showbiz actualization following the algebra term paper, plane that gives it its particular reality.” A day may begin with a plan and proceed by a map (the product of ichnographic vision), and by the end might have traced out that (usually digital blue) line, a plane that Deleuze and Guattari would call “territorialization” (in A Thousand Plateaus ), but the passage is the beloved purely virtual. In the measure of the day, a walker enacts a plan (not a plane), but that walking is slow. Its measure is on the level of the between-moment. This virtuality is a-conscious because “Consciousness becomes produced as a fact only when a subject is produced at the same time as its object…” Consciousness, subject, object are retrospectively produced in the performance of immanence. This then accounts for the indefinite article in Deleuze’s formulation. We are never in the presence of THE LIFE. Algebra Paper. That would be Being, a definition that pinpoints life in the way GPS and a map captures position but loses everything else. The map does not include the eagles circling overhead, the smell of cherry blossoms, the squeak of dry snow, the slip of on showbiz mud, a midday snack of a Snickers bar, and that sense of rhythmic totality walking brings.
It is indefinite because such becoming always evades capture, even as it is beyond articulation– which is why Deleuze’s last essay is so damn difficult. So is walking. T. Hugh Crawford. The Appalachian Trail is often called the “green tunnel,” an acknowledgement of the dense forest canopy that surrounds the footpath. Couple that with uneven terrain that demands downcast eyes and term you have an experience that by and large is devoid of the spectatorial beauty used to advertise and celebrate the trail. Those magnificent views come from scenic overlooks occasionally encountered but not regularly lived. Still, most long-distance hikers seek that momentary spectacle, looking for the hiker’s sublime. Easy Observation. They seem to understand pleasure, definitely know pain, and without doubt experience more than their share of natural beauty. I cannot even begin to explain what motivates long-distance hikers.
Many want to test their resolve in the face of deprivation over long stretches of algebra space and time, others simply enjoy the simplicity the hiker’s life brings, but all, on some level, acknowledge the desire to experience isolated mountaintops, silent forests, cascading waters. Although over time its fortunes have risen and fallen in aesthetic theory, the concept of the physics title, sublime maintains a special place for walkers–the experience of awe that is algebra term awful, a beauty that overwhelms, something that arrests as well as upends. At least since Burke, our understanding of the sublime has been contrasted with the beautiful, terms that are often mixed, particularly in nature writing. Arts Career Essay. For me, the sublime has always been a brutal beauty, though the algebra term paper, modes of brutality need some explication. As an aesthetic category, the sublime can be encountered in college paper language (Longinus), nature (Kant), or the visual arts (Lyotard), but it always remains within a discourse of algebra term power, specifically of being overpowered. However in most accounts, it–similar to beauty–is either spectatorial or is passively experienced through speech or reading.
It is arts career culinary a moment of arrest–a hiatus–producing awe, terror, and a pleasure somehow derived from pain; it belittles and makes anxious. We are puny in the face of its “irresistible force” (Longinus). Not far from the Appalachian Trail is algebra Virginia’s “Natural Bridge,” a limestone formation once owned and surveyed by Thomas Jefferson who, in Notes on Virginia calls it “the most sublime of write comparing and contrasting two different animals Nature’s works.” When regarded from below, it is quite a sight, but, as Jefferson further notes, visitors who venture to the top fear creeping to algebra term, its edge: “Looking down from this height about arts essay a minute, gave me a violent head ache.” He acknowledges the sublimity of the view below, but “the view from the algebra term paper, top [is] painful and intolerable.” Jefferson hung in Monticello a painting of Natural Bridge by William Roberts, a work that participates in the spectatorial sublime, as does viewing the bridge from the stream bed. However Jefferson’s embodied experience on the precipice is the beloved country essay different, resembling trekking in the big outside with its uncertainty, anxiety, pain, and sometimes fear. For Burke, terror is the sublime’s “ruling principle.” It is lived in algebra paper an instant though it is the product of a slowly building situation. College Research. Terror in the sense of breathless fear is algebra paper not a common experience of the hiker, but a low-grade anxiety about health, safety and loss, an anxiety not regularly experienced by people in familiar surroundings, is part of on showbiz what could be called the paper, ambulatory sublime. Beautiful scenes–the ubiquitous “scenic overlooks”– are staged by an enframing that brings them into foveal vision, into a comfortable spectacle. Evolution linked adrenaline and the flight response to peripheral vision, the fear that is invoked by physics thesis title movement on the edges of perception. Moving through the bush requires a heightened awareness of the flickering between foveal and peripheral perception. There the micro-sublime is lived at the edges of perception, where uncertainty and danger lurk. On the algebra paper, Te Araroa, hikers often have to essay, follow poles topped by orange cylinders marking the algebra paper, pathless trail.
Spaced at considerable distance, they are sometimes not clearly visible, so on reaching one, the direction to the next is not obvious. The orange chosen for marking stands out from the rest of the landscape, but it is most easily distinguished by peripheral vision, that part of sight best equipped to notice the anomalous in the field. Title. Hikers searching for the next marker saccade across the algebra term, scene, using low-level anxiety to find their way across what feels a vast and the beloved country essay inhuman landscape. Such moments are obviously not the sublime in any traditional sense, but they structure a hiker’s form of attention. Like vision flickering from foveal to peripheral, walking is both spectatorial and immersive, a double move described by the inveterate walkers Wordsworth and algebra paper Thoreau. Hikers stop for the spectacular, are arrested by those moments, but then continue on, feeling both the loss of the scene and the possibility of an even better one at the next turn. An Essay Comparing Animals. They are moving bodies immersed in a moving nature. Hall of Fame hiker William Wordsworth is reputed to have walked 180,000 miles in paper his lifetime. On Showbiz. Skipping his final exams at Cambridge, he and a friend went on a 2000 mile walk across Europe, with his sublime moment occurring in the Alps. Definitions of the sublime usually focus on a moment, that awful singularity, but such moments pass and algebra term walkers continue their journey.
For them, the sublime opens out over time and is experienced as anticipation, arrest, loss, and continuation. Hiking long-distance (and 2000 miles across Europe qualifies) is passage, not stasis. Hikers may creep out onto the edge of the precipice, but they also will spend most of the essay, day trudging step by step in less heart-pounding circumstances. Despite his anticipation, Wordsworth’s actual crossing of the Alps, as detailed in algebra The Prelude , was a belly-drop. Like most long-distance hikers, he and observation essay his friend become momentarily disoriented (moment of low-level anxiety). Finding someone to ask the algebra, way, they discover they have already passed what they most anticipated: To our inquires, in arts career essay their sense and substance. Translated by algebra the feelings which we had, Ended in this–that we had crossed the Alps. Major waypoints bring excitement: Springer Mountain, Katahdin, that constantly shifting AT half-way point in Pennsylvania, the Canadian border on the Pacific Crest Trail, High Cup Nick on the Pennine Way–all points of passage to be cherished, not missed. For Wordsworth, crossing the Alps did not bring a sublime view, but it was a temporally sublime moment, part of the ambulatory sublime experienced not through the easy observation essay, eyes but instead through his bootsoles, a quickened pulse and a sense of loss–failure to capture, contain, or comprehend an always already passing world.
Wordsworth follows that momentary disappointment with an image of paper timeless sublimity: Downwards we hurried fast, And, with the half-shaped road which we had missed, Entered a narrow chasm. The brook and road. Were fellow-travellers in this gloomy strait, And with them did we journey several hours.
At a slow pace. The immeasurable height. Of woods decaying, never to easy, be decayed, The stationary blasts of waterfalls, And in the narrow rent at every turn. Winds thwarting winds, bewildered and forlorn, The torrents shooting from the clear blue sky, The rocks that muttered close upon our ears, Black drizzling crags that spake by the way-side.
As if a voice were in them, the sick sight. And giddy prospect of the raving stream, The unfettered clouds and region of the Heavens, Tumult and peace, the darkness and algebra term the light— Were all like workings of one mind, the features. Of the same face, blossoms upon one tree; Characters of the great Apocalypse,
The types and symbols of Eternity. Permanence and change, momentous visions, it is all here in horrible, awful, overwhelming forms. The reader gets Longinian discursive sublime full-bore, but the long-distance walker gets the other. Theirs is a stationary blast passed by. The pain is not nausea or terror, but footsore pain/pleasure at seeing that which is nominally and normally unavailable to all but the and contrasting two different animals, most intrepid. The beauty is brutal, and the experience is brutalizing. Wordsworth missed marking his crossing of the divide, but as he well knows, walking is algebra term always about loss. The decaying woods are never to be decayed because they live a different, longer, temporal rhythm. Culinary Essay. At the same time, walkers are acutely aware of their temporal rhythms, the need to algebra term, mark out the day’s trek, to the beloved essay, not get lost, and to algebra term, live the way intensely.
Long before hordes of Appalachian Trail hikers began to arrive at Baxter State Park to climb Mount Katadhin marking the end of write an essay and contrasting two different animals their 2000 mile journey, Thoreau attempted an paper ascent which he documented in easy essay The Maine Woods . Although a part of the massif now bears his name, Thoreau’s climb was unsuccessful (if you define success as attaining the summit). He set out from his group’s encampment just below tree line early one morning filled with hope only to be stymied by the notoriously difficult weather near the peak. He attained the top of one of term Katahdin’s shoulders but in the mist could not make out the actual peak. Turning, he descended to rejoin his companions offering up this sublime vision: “Nature was here something savage and awful, though beautiful. I looked with awe at the ground I trod on, to country, see what the term, Powers had made there, the form and arts career fashion and algebra material of their work.” Then, “Here was no man’s garden, but the unhandselled globe. It was not lawn, nor pasture, nor mead, nor woodland, nor lea, nor arable, nor waste?land. . Write Comparing And Contrasting Two Different Animals. . Man was not to be associated with it.
It was Matter, vast, terrific, ?? not his Mother Earth that we have heard of, not for algebra him to paper outline, tread on, or be buried in….” Thoreau is firmly in the rhetoric of the literary sublime, offering up a vision of the inhuman which permeates such scenes, but his experience of that climb is another sublimity. His passage, his inability to comprehend the misty, craggy, inscrutable world he was passing through, was filled with amazement and algebra paper anxiety. Retracing his steps down a pathless scree in hopes of clearer weather or a sign that he was on comparing and contrasting animals the proper way, Thoreau as walker lives the ambulatory sublime and experiences its brutality. Back in November, I woke in Upper Travers Hut hearing Grant, an expedition leader, stoking the algebra term, fire in the beloved country the wood stove, and before too long his hiking crew started rustling about. I packed, made oatmeal and coffee, then had a second cup while talking with the crew when I really should have been hiking. Ideally I wanted to get to Waiau Forks to camp that night, but that required an early morning climb over Travers saddle which is 1700 + meters and then, late in the day, Waiau Pass which, at 1800+ meters, is the highest point on the South island part of the Te Araroa and also the most dangerous. Regretfully I said my farewells and started out. It was a sunny clear day as I climbed up above the bush line.
All around were snow-capped peaks, and I made it to algebra paper, the top within an hour, lingering for a moment before starting the long descent to the Sabine River Valley. On Showbiz. The winter snows, avalanches, and algebra paper rock slides had pretty well taken out all the poles marking the lower part of the decent, so I followed rock cairns helpfully but haphazardly piled to show the way. By late morning I found the country essay, trail through the woods where I crossed the river and made my way up toward Blue Lake. Like the Travers, the term paper, Sabine is clear and fast running. At its headwaters is Blue Lake, the place where the body of the first hiker to country, die on paper the Te Aroroa was found. I arrived by midday and paper outline apa format decided there was enough daylight to make the trek over Waiau. The trail took me past Lake Constance which rivals Blue in color and term paper beauty though getting around it required some hard climbing and narrow ledge hiking.
The last bit was on a gravel beach at the water’s edge. The waters coming into it came across a wide flat plain that the trail followed. It gradually narrowed to a canyon surrounded by snow-capped mountains with nothing that looked like a pass in evidence. Then trail markers made a sharp turn and went straight up the side of observation essay topics one of the mountains which might have had a little bit of a dip in algebra term paper altitude compared to physics title, the others, but hardly deserves the name “pass.” The initial climb was on loose gravel, so each step slid back almost as much as it went forward. After an hour or so, I got the the first leveling off to algebra term, rest. Physics Thesis. In mid-winter this is a high avalanche risk area, and algebra term paper I was uncertain what conditions reduce that risk in the spring. Essay. Soon I found myself crossing snowfields on the way up, and at the top I saw that the descent down the other side was deep snow for more than a third of the way to the valley floor. Fortunately someone had been through recently, so I was able to follow their footsteps down.
I’m not sure how deep the snow was, but only the tops of the algebra, markers were visible and I would sink to about mid-calf with each step. Observation Essay. Sweating from exertion but with freezing feet, I finally got below snow line, followed the term paper, western branch of the Waiau River to easy topics, where it met the eastern half. After eleven hours of hard hiking, I pitched my tent in term paper a beech forest beside the river, built a small fire to dry out my shoes and warm my feet, then gratefully crawled into my tent ready for a hard night’s sleep. That day was not part of a discursive or artistic sublime. There were a few moments where the essay, views were without doubt overwhelming. Algebra. The Travers and Waiau Passes afforded scenes that surpass capture, and a Sabine tributary that runs through a deep roofless cave crossed by a narrow wooden bridge would surely have given Jefferson another head ache, but it was a day of the ambulatory sublime.
A walk where pain was mixed with pleasure, confidence was shaken by uncertainty, and fear was promoted by both low-level anxiety and the real possibility of bodily harm–an intensity not captured by traditional aesthetic categories. It was temporal, embodied, and immersive, but above all, it was brutal.
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essay englishness ‘Englishness’ has been a popular term for the past decade. A look into any publisher’s catalogue will immediately discover a wide variety of titles dedicated to the topic of paper, English national identity. These can be very specific such as, for write an essay two different animals example, The Politics of paper, Englishness , The Englishness of English Dress , or Landscape and Englishness , or tend towards the more general, all-encompassing, such as Englishness Identified or, quite simply, Englishness (i) . Add to this the almost overwhelming number of books dedicated to England and easy observation essay topics things English ranging, to algebra, name but a few, from write comparing and contrasting, Watching the English and England: an Elegy to Identity of England , An Imaginary England , Real England or Eating for algebra term paper England and one would be forgiven to physics title, think that everything there is to term, know about physics England, the English and Englishness has been covered, written and analysed (ii). Still, new titles keep arriving; and still, the term paper, answer to the question ‘what does it mean, in the twenty-first century, to be English’ has proven elusive. This, of course, immediately gives rise to yet another question: is it actually possible, or even desirable, to find a definite answer to physics, ‘the English question’? Should a term such as ‘Englishness’ indicate something definite or finite, or is it rather its fluidity, its changeability, that makes it such an intriguing concept?
The following essay does by no means attempt to find an answer to the above question. Algebra Term. Instead, it sets out to show how one contemporary novelist tackles issues of national identity and write an essay and contrasting two different animals belonging by setting up his readers’ expectations only to then challenge and subvert them. Julian Barnes’ Booker-prize short-listed novel England England of 1998 is term paper a playful, almost irreverent deconstruction of preconceived and traditional ideas about national identity (iii). The novel is structured into three parts that follow the life of its main protagonist, Martha Cochrane, as she first recounts her early childhood memories; then her rise and fall as manager of the theme park England England , a ‘reconstruction’ of England in the Isle of Wight; and essay finally her old age in term paper a forgotten corner of old England called ‘Anglia’. While the beginning and concluding part of the novel are realist in their narrative tone, the middle and longest part of the novel is the beloved country essay postmodern in that it blends a variety of techniques and philosophical ideas. My essay will firstly focus on Barnes’ use some might call it over-indulgent use of the narrative device of the paper, list; it will then look at the novel’s technique and conclude that that in itself resembles a list with the career culinary essay, result that Barnes seems to be satirising his own novel. The narrative device of ‘the list’, and here in particular its use in attempts to term paper, define and explain national identity, deserves some elaboration. When all else fails, a simple listing of things, events and people one associates with a particular country can be offered in place of a proper definition.
Dominic Head has pointed out the “empirical habit of cultural commentators who resort to lists of things that might define that national character by drawing together its disparate elements” (iv).The list of arts career essay, writers and cultural commentators who have made use of such lists is long and eclectic, ranging from John Betjeman, who famously conjured up “the Church of England, eccentric incumbents, oil-lit churches, Women’s Institutes, modest village inns, arguments about cow parsley on the altar, the algebra paper, noise of mowing machines on and contrasting animals, Saturday afternoons  branch-line trains, light railways, leaning on term paper, gates and looking across fields” (v), and George Orwell, whose image of “old maids biking to Holy Communion through the on showbiz, mists of the autumn morning” (vi) has since been appropriated for nostalgic evocations of England’s past greatness, most famously by term paper John Major in the 1990s; to otherwise seemingly more forward-looking and cynical commentators such as Jeremy Paxman who, in on showbiz 1998, compiled a list of things English containing “village cricket and algebra term Elgar  punk, street fashion, irony, vigorous politics, brass bands, Shakespeare, Cumberland sausages, double-decker buses, Vaughan Williams, Donne and an essay two different Dickens, twitching net curtains, breast-obsession, quizzes and crosswords ” (vii). Paxman’s list is particularly interesting as it departs, in some respects, from the ‘typical’ list of algebra paper, Englishness that often focuses on purely rural England see, for example, Betjeman’s focus on villages and rural churches. Paxman not only essay combines the rural with the urban, but also offers an intriguing blend of objects, places, names and attitudes that shows just how much and how many different aspects there are to Englishness. The internet has recently also proven to be a valuable research tool on Englishness as a plethora of websites dedicated to debating Englishness have sprung up. Prominent among these are the term, Open Democracy Net’s ‘Our Kingdom’ section that is dedicated, as a blog space, to the “future of the United Kingdom” (viii), and the “Icons” site which, in its own words, tries to the beloved essay, offer “a portrait of England” (ix). Aim of the algebra paper, Icons website is to offer its users a list of markers of Englishness but to physics thesis title, allow its users to algebra paper, vote them either ‘in’ or ‘out’. As such, the Icons website is not as prescriptive as the above selective lists but offers more active involvement by individuals, who can also ‘nominate’ new icons for general vote. Of particular interest in essay this context is the website “What England Means to Me” which offers an ongoing debate and dialogue and attempts to compile a “Domesday Book” of contemporary feelings, opinions and attitudes about Englishness (x). Its contributors come from very diverse backgrounds and, importantly, are by no means all English. Algebra Paper. “What England Means to Me” brings together political commentators, practicing politicians, academics, socialist activists, farmers and many more, and, looking through the entries, what stands out observation essay most is the diversity of them which clearly shows that ‘Englishness’ is a term difficult to pinpoint, and of immense subjective meaning and importance. However, I would like to algebra paper, focus on the following two entries. The Conservative MP John Redwood, for example, depicts England as.
a summer’s day by a river in a wooded valley, an afternoon on the cricket field, strawberries at Wimbledon, and well kept gardens in leafy suburbs. It is seeing Shakespeare enacted at the Globe, hearing William Byrd and Handel. It is a way of life and a way of thinking. At their best Englishmen and the beloved country women believe in fair play, freedom and tolerance (xii). Scilla Cullen, the Chairwoman of the Campaign for an English Parliament, finds that. England is a country of local loyalties and identities, villages where people look after one another, pubs that you can walk into algebra paper and strike up a conversation, pub gossip; the the beloved essay, unique change ringing of our church bells and the church as the focal point of a community, less so nowadays unhappily. Clichés such as the sound of wood on term paper, leather on a lazy summer’s afternoon are just as evocative whether or not they are clichés. England means quiet country lanes and villages and physics title that green and term paper pleasant land; a connection with the soil and arts career culinary the farming community; food production, the basis of life (xii). These are, clearly, two very patriotic statements; and also two statements with considerable political spin: by listing certain things that Redwood and Cullen consider to be particularly English cricket, strawberries and cream, pretty, suburban gardens, the green and term pleasant land they try to create a sense of country essay, community among their readers, or dare one say a sense of algebra term, complicity down the line of ‘Englishmen and women will know what I mean’.
Althouth this might, indeed, be what the terms ‘England’ and on showbiz ‘Englishness’ conjure up for the two, their choice is extremely selective, tapping into stereotypical, and, potentially, outmoded or at term, best socially exclusive clichés of Englishness that, inevitably, exclude the majority of readers. Entries such as the on showbiz, ones above, despite their upper-middle-class and somewhat wistful and algebra backwards-looking, not to say reactionary, take on easy observation topics, Englishness, can be linked to the theoretical concept of term, lieux de mémoire put forward by the French historian Pierre Nora (xiii). Nora differentiates “sites of memory” into environments milieux and places lieux of memory. For him, history is essay on showbiz a construct that presents selective forms of the past. Algebra. ‘Memory’, by contrast, can be changed and manipulated and thesis is consequently more active. In this respect, Nora’s milieux de mémoire are also devolving: they are the spheres in algebra paper which we not only live but engage with the past. Culinary. But to return to the idea of icons of paper, nationhood: these can be seen as Nora’s lieux de mémoire , static, fixed sites of memory, for examples places, pieces of literature, certain persons or landscapes but always a gateway to the past and to memory. All the previously mentioned lists are, of course, nothing but a manifestation of Nora’s concept of lieux de mémoire and it is important to see that it is selective and suggestive lists such as these that form the backbone to the beloved country essay, discussions and writing on national identity.
If we link Nora’s lieux de mémoire to Benedict Anderson’s concept of nations as imagined communities, then we can see that, for reasons of political spin (not to algebra term, say power) certain images of a nation are repeatedly conjured up presumably by those in write comparing two different animals power to create a sense of belonging, and a sense of community. Algebra Paper. Anderson sees nations as “cultural artefacts of a particular kind”, one that requires the willing participation of the beloved essay, everybody concerned, to imagine the nation as “a community” (xiv) and the repeated use of certain images certainly could be seen to help that process along. However, it is also important to realise that it could be abused for political gain and spin. Algebra Term Paper. Randall Stephenson has pointed out that “a nation’s sense of identity is inevitably entangled with images it has to adopt in presenting itself to the beloved country, the outside world” (xv), a comment that points at another issue: that there is paper often a difference between how a nation sees itself, and how it is perceived by others. Crucially, Stephenson suggests that nations then often perpetuate and re-enforce the image others have in order to keep a certain standing in the world or, on a more practical level, to maintain foreign interest and thesis title attract tourists.
This is where Barnes’ novel England England comes in as it is term a lampooning of the contemporary tourist industry that can also be read as an ironic construct around the notion of ‘lists of Englishness’ or lieux de mémoire to such an extent that it turns it into a self-conscious list of lists. On a personal level, the novel starts with the easy observation essay, figure of Martha Cochrane and her attempts to find a sense of national identity as a child: her earliest memory, she claims, is of “sitting on the kitchen floor and algebra term there, spread out was her Counties of England jigsaw puzzle” ( EE , 4). Martha’s attempts to piece together her jigsaw are symbolic of trying to find her own sense of self and, quite literally, her place within her country. On Showbiz. The novel’s cover illustration jigsaw pieces showing the term, South of England is indicative of this slow process of research paper outline apa format, building a sense of self and belonging. Once a piece of the jigsaw goes missing and algebra paper with ‘Nottinghamshire’ it is a substantial and, crucially, a very central piece Martha’s developing sense of national identity is disrupted and she appears forever searching, not just for the missing piece but also for career her own sense of self. At school, Martha and the other children are conditioned into a prescribed notion of algebra term paper, Englishness encompassed in the historical dates they are required to learn off by heart and repeat to rhythmic clapping: 55BC (clap clap) Roman Invasion. 1066 (clap clap) Battle of Hastings.
1215 (clap clap) Magna Carta. 1512 (clap clap) Henry the Eight (clap clap) Defender of Faith (clap clap) culminating in easy observation topics ‘1940 (clap clap) Battle of algebra term, Britain / 1973 (clap clap) Treaty of Rome’ ( EE , 11). This list of ‘important’ historical dates is, like the previously mentioned clichéd stereotypes of Englishness, highly selective, only conveying a sense of research paper apa format, a triumphant Englishness that does not leave any space for doubts regarding the algebra, supremacy of the college paper apa format, nation. In addition, the rhythmical clapping the children have to provide does not allow them time for reflection or, heaven forbid, questioning of the dates and events they are ordered to absorb. Effectively, they are thus turned into little, patriotic automata. It can be argued that Barnes satirises this ‘conditioning’ when, over algebra almost two pages, he lists the various categories that can be found at an Agricultural Fair, ranging from arts career culinary essay, “Three Carrots long, Three Carrots short, Three Turnips any variety, Five Potatoes long, Five Potatoes round” and “Six Eschalots, large red, Six Eschalots, small red, Six Eschalots, large white, Six Eschalots, small white” to such delectable things as “Collection of Vegetable.
Six distinct kinds. Cauliflowers, if included, must be shown on stalks” and “Tray of vegetables. Tray may be dressed, but only parsley may be used”, taking in livestock and condiments, to eventually culminate in the dazzling and fragrant display of “Three Dahlias, decorative, over 8’’ in three vases, Three Dahlias, decorative, 6’’8’’ in algebra term paper one vase, Four Dahlias, decorative, 3’’6’’ in one vase” and so on ( EE , 89). An extensive list such as this so early on in the novel does several things. First of all, it once again reflects Martha’s own childish sense of insecurity, or rather her relief at the believed security these lists seemingly set in stone appear to convey: “there was something about the lists their calm organisation and their completeness which satisfied her” ( EE , 9).
Martha seems to feel that only an essay comparing and contrasting animals if things have been properly labelled and pigeon-holed do they achieve a sense of algebra, proper being: “She felt as if the items laid out before them could not truly exist until she had named and categorised them” ( EE , 9). But the passage has a deeper meaning for essay on showbiz the novel as a whole as it points at the constructedness of everything: Country Fairs are organised, as the list shows, in an almost regimented manner; Country Fairs, as any tourist brochure of algebra term paper, rural areas will confirm, are also representative of a quintessential Englishness, a fact explored in Iain Aitch’s tongue-in-cheek A Fête Worse than Death which promises, in its blurb, yet another “hilarious insight into write an essay comparing two different what it is to be English in the twenty-first century.” (xvi) Barnes’ novel thus shows very early on algebra, that ‘Englishness’ is built around rigid pointers of national identity that are themselves artificially constructed and that can, as in the case of the beloved country, artificially arranged vegetables, be taken to term paper, extremes. Paper Apa Format. And this notion of the nation as an artificial construct is algebra paper considerably elaborated on in the rest of the novel. The personal level of national identity construction is further pursued in the figure of Sir Jack Pitman, the founder of the theme park England, England. Here, too, lists play an essay, important part: Sir Jack is described not simply as a business tycoon, but as an algebra term paper, “entrepreneur, innovator, ideas man, arts patron, inner-city revitaliser” ( EE , 29), every new title further emphasising his importance. However, as he is easy observation essay a self-made, or, in his case more specifically a ‘self-styled’ man, the list of nouns describing his standing rather gives rise to algebra term, doubt: why a list of words, where a single one might have sufficed? This might have to do with Sir Jack’s origins which are described as somewhat dubious (xvii) and which might also explain the essay, fact that he always tries his utmost to appear as the stereotypical, upper-class English male, be it in the choice of apparel when going on a country walk clad in yet another form of a list a ‘tweed deerstalker, hunter’s jacket, cavalry twills, gaiters, hand-crafted doe-skin boots and fell-walker’s stave. All made in algebra term England, of course: Sir Jack was a patriot’ ( EE , 42) or in his taste in braces: ‘He pulled on his after-lunch cigar and snapped his MCC braces: red and yellow, ketchup and research paper outline apa format egg-yolk. He was not a member of the MCC, and his brace-maker knew better than to ask. For that matter, he had not been to Eton, served in algebra paper the Guards or been accepted by the Garrick Club; yet he owned the braces which implied as much’ ( EE , 30). While Sir Jack considers his own behaviour as that of ‘a rebel at heart A bit of a maverick.
A man who bends his knee to no-one. Yet a patriot at heart’ ( EE , 30), it could also be read as the on showbiz, insecure casting around for a recognised identity, for a sense of belonging of the potential outsider, be it the social outsider in algebra term class terms, or the outsider in terms of national origin. Easy Observation Topics. This is a case of algebra paper, literal self-fashioning according to national stereotypes and could be seen, in the words of Aileen Ribeiro, as “a defiant buying into nationality through clothing.” (xviii) Whether or not this ‘buying’ into English national identity is successful is the beloved a different matter; but the term paper, fact that a “couple of young hikers” start snickering when seeing him in his walking outfit seems to query it altogether ( EE , 42). Lists also play an important role in the actual conception and construction of the theme park England, England. Observation Essay Topics. One of the first lists the algebra paper, reader is confronted with focuses on the search for an island location for the planned theme park: ‘if we are seeking to offer the thing itself , we in turn must go in search of a precious whatsit set in a silver doodah’. ‘The Scillies?’ ‘The Channel Islands?’ ‘Lundy Island?’ Anglesey was out. The Isle of Man? ‘There,’ he said, and his curled fist came down like a passport stamp. The Beloved. ‘ There .’ ‘The Isle of term, Wight,’ they answered in straggly unison ( EE , 612) . Barnes thus provides a clever geographical frame that works its way around the English coast island by island and that picks up on the image of the Counties of England jigsaw in the first part. Every island is systematically worked through and assessed for its suitability. The lists also consider “proper English foodstuffs” to serve in the park, approved by the “Gastronomic Sub-Committee”and ranging from “Roast Beef of Old England  Yorkshire Pudding, Lancashire hotpot, Sussex pond pudding, Coventry isgodcakes, Aylesbury duckling, Brown Windsor Soup, Devonshire splits, Melton Mowbray pie [and] Bedfordshire clangers” to thesis title, the probably less known and more regional “Hindle Wakes, stargazey pie, wow-wow sauce  fat rascals, Bosworth jumbles, moggy and parkin” ( EE , 901). That the reputation of English food in the world is not the best is not a secret; certainly not since French President Chirac’s diatribe against it (xix).
The attempt to algebra, sell the best of English cuisine to the visiting tourist is consequently understandable. The Beloved. But even in this seemingly innocent line-up of algebra term, English delicacies there is political spin: traditional dishes such as faggots and fairy cakes are omitted “in case they offended the pink dollar”, spotted dick is renamed “spotted dog” but still discarded from the paper outline, list, “toad-in-the hole” and term “cock-a-leekie” rejected outright ( EE , 901). Thesis Title. In the planned theme park of England, England, not even food is paper taken for what it really is food but it is imbibed with an alleged political message. Political correctness taken a step to far. The notion of lists culminates in Sir Jack’s market research into clichés of Englishness. Essay. “Potential purchasers of algebra paper, Quality Leisure in twenty-five countries had been asked to list six characteristics, virtues or quintessences which the word England suggested to them” ( EE , 83).
The result is the country, so-called “Fifty Quintessences of Englishness” that include predictable markers of identity such as the Royal Family, the term paper, Houses of Parliament, the White Cliffs of Dover and Thatched Cottages, pubs and cups of tea, but also such unexpected and negative ones as hypocrisy, perfidy, whingeing, emotional frigidity, flagellation, and bad underwear ( EE , 8385). While Barnes’ list of Englishness is very amusing and, potentially, very enlightening, it once again hints at an unsavoury truth: who does, in fact, decide what IS and ISN’T a marker of national identity? Sir Jack’s reaction when going through the on showbiz, list is telling: ‘Sir Jack prodded a forefinger down Jeff’s list again, and his loyal growl intensified with each item he’d crossed off. This wasn’t a poll, it was barefaced character assassination. Who the fuck did they think they were, going around saying things like that about England? His England. What did they know?’ ( EE , 86). By crossing things off the list, Sir Jack immediately designates himself as the ‘Creator’ of the new ‘country’ of England, England and shows that the choice of markers of national identity is, by force, subjective and selective. He does, consequently, not re construct England, but simply constructs a very personal version of algebra paper, it. (xx) The result is frightening.
The Isle of Wight quickly loses all sense of identity and is being turned into an England in an essay comparing and contrasting two different animals Miniature an ironic stab by term paper Barnes at observation essay topics, the island itself that has, over the years, repeatedly marketed itself as just that, an England in miniature. Natural features are blotted out or bulldozed over, to algebra term paper, be replaced by copies of the originals that can be found but suddenly lose their interest all over England. The theme park with its method actors that buy whole-heartedly into the ideology of the project soon surpasses the physics, original and term England herself sinks into ignominy. Essay. Barnes’ novel thus perfectly applies Baudrillard’s three stages of postmodernity: it starts with the simulation the building of the theme park which leads to a blurring and finally implosion of the boundaries between reality and the simulated. Algebra Term Paper. The original world i.e.
England herself is replaced by the simulation which leads to essay on showbiz, a hyperreality. Term Paper. The warning signs for this come very early in the novel when Sir Jack who assumes almost god-like characteristics grand-eloquently warns his employees that ‘I could have you replaced with substitutes, with simulacra quickly’ ( EE , 31). On Showbiz. The novel thus, in the words of Frederick Holmes, “deconstructs the term paper, very concept of authenticity, showing how it is inextricably mixed with and dependent upon inauthenticity” (xxi) which is arts essay a more positive reading of England England than Matthew Pateman’s comment that England England is all about “the quotation of history, of people, of places, of things.” (xxii). Pateman, incidentally, flatly condemns England England for the similarities, both structurally and content-wise, it bears to Barnes’ preceding work: “What was perhaps  surprising, from an author whose work had previously seemed so fresh and new, was the extent to which the novel also seemed to rehearse ideas and themes already encountered in previous of his novels in a fashion that was also very similar to earlier treatments.” (xxiii) He elaborates that England England employs a similar structure as Metroland or Staring at the Sun , and term that Barnes reiterates content from earlier novels, such as A History of the World in 10 ½ Chapters which he sees reflected in Martha’s “Brief History of easy essay, Sexuality”. (xxiv) This leads him to algebra term paper, suggest that Barnes is “himself deploying the strategies of easy observation, simulacra, inauthenticity, and fake in algebra term order to tell a story of simulacra, inauthenticity, and fake.” (xxv) While Pateman considers this an unsuccessful experiment, I would like to argue that it is one that is perfectly in keeping with Barnes’ use of the list. His use of lists quite simply exceeds mere lists depicting national identity. The self-referentiality to his own work, plus the use of a wide variety of techniques such as parody and paper outline apa format pastiche, the switch in narrative mode from realism in the first and last section, to postmodern experiment in the second, as well as the recreation of a pastoral elegy in the final part show Barnes’ conscious engagement with the term, idea of simulation. While the idea of national identity and its artificial construction and perpetuation clearly stand at the foreground of the beloved country, England England , the term paper, whole novel in itself turns into a very clever ‘list’ in easy observation topics its own right. To conclude, I would like to come back full circle and refer you back to algebra term paper, the website of arts culinary essay, What England Means to algebra paper, Me where Gareth Young, one of the editors, wrote: The England of the mind’s eye, that England that exists in our imaginations, is write comparing and contrasting two different a schizophrenic construction drawn from often conflicting ideas of England. There is the Romantic’s England, that of the bucolic shire, the pastoral idyll of stone cottages, winding lanes, parish churches, hedgerows and patchwork fields; there is the Nationalist’s England of Imperial institutions like Monarchy, Parliament, Civil Service, Military, and then; there is the Idealist’s England, the idea of England itself, Habeas Corpus, Freedom of thought and expression, Individualism, Tolerance, Democracy.
All too often these imaginings contrast with the reality of algebra term, England, a place in which we not only fail to build a new Jerusalem but seem to move ever farther from the England of our mind’s eye. (xxvi) Barnes’ novel plays with these notions of various ‘schizophrenic construction[s] drawn from often conflicting ideas of England’. He uses traditional and title acknowledged rightly or wrongly icons of term paper, Englishness and deconstruct them for his own means. By building his novel around different lists of Englishness, he not only ridicules this idea in the first place in fact, Aileen Ribeiro writes that ‘perhaps the making of such lists (‘listism’?) is a peculiarly English idiosyncrasy?’ (xxvii) but also shows up those lists precisely for essay what they are: artificial constructs that, maybe, help to convey a few stereotypes of the algebra term, nation but are not more than that, and should be recognised for all their shortcomings. And those shorcomings are clear to essay, see: most of the markers of paper, Englishness compiled in the “50 Quintessences” are traditional, backward-looking, and nostalgic.
The theme park of easy observation essay, England England does thus not provide a version of a contemporary England in miniature, but rather one of an England of times gone by, and thus potentially a mythical version of England. As Nick Bentley has pointed out, England England is devoid of “any sense of a future England.” (xxviii) Barnes consequently highlights the shortcomings of the algebra term, tourism and especially the so-called heritage industry that, in the effort to instil any sense of patriotism and identity instead turn the past into a theme park, something artificial, constructed and, effectively, highly non-representational of ‘the real thing’. Originally published by the Journal of American, British and Canadian Studies. Berberich, Christine (2009), “A peculiarly English idiosyncrasy?”: Julian Barnes’s use of lists in England, England . American, British and Canadian Studies, 13. pp. 75-87. ISSN 1841-1487. Title. Republished by kind permission. Dr Christine Berberich is Senior Lecturer in English Literature at Portsmouth University. i) See Arthur Aughey, The Politics of Englishness (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007), Christopher Breward, Becky Conekin Caroline Cox (eds), The Englishness of term, English Dress (Oxford: Berg, 2002), David Matless, Landscape and Englishness (London: Reaktion Books, 1998), Wendy Webster, Englishness and Empire 19391965 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), Paul Langford, Englishness Identified. Manners and Character 1650--1850 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), Simon Featherstone, Englishness.
Twentieth-Century Popular Culture and the Forming of English Identity (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009) ii) Kate Fox, Watching the English. The Hidden Rules of English Behaviour (London: Hodder Stoughton, 2004), Roger Scruton, England: an Elegy (London: Chatto Windus, 2000), Robert Colls, Identity of England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), Roger Ebbatson, An Imaginary England. Nation, Landscape and Literature 1840 1920 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), Paul Kingsnorth, Real England. The Battle against the Bland (London: Portobello Books Ltd., 2008), Nigel Slater, Eating for England. The Delights and Eccentricities of the physics thesis title, British at Table (London: Fourth Estate, 2007). iii) Julian Barnes, England England (London: Jonathan Cape, 1998). All further references parenthetically within the algebra term paper, text. iv) Dominic Head, “Julian Barnes and a Case of English Identity” in easy topics Philip Tew Rod Mengham (eds), British Fiction Today (London: Continuum, 2006), 19. v) John Betjeman, “Oh, to term, be in England,” The Listener 29.739 (11 March 1943): 296.
vi) George Orwell, The Lion and the Unicorn. Topics. Socialism and term paper the English Genius (London: Secker Warburg, 1941). vii) Jeremy Paxman, The English. A Portrait of a People (London: Michael Joseph, 1998), 2223. xi) John Redwood at an essay comparing and contrasting, http://whatenglandmeanstome.co.uk/?p=38. xii) Scilla Cullen at http://whatenglandmeanstome.co.uk/?p=89. xiii) Pierre Nora, ‘Between Memory and History: Les Lieux de Mémoire,’ Representations 26 (1989): 724. xiv) Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities. Paper. Reflections on the Origin and essay Spread of Nationalism (1983; 1991; London: Verso, 1998), 4, 7. xv) Randall Stephenson, The Last of England? Oxford English Literary History Series, Volume 12 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 47.
xvi) See, for example, the extremely detailed website of the Great Yorkshire Show with all its intricate entry requirements at http://www.greatyorkshireshow.co.uk/Livestock and the website of the Association of algebra paper, Show Agricultural Organisations ASAO at http://www.asao.co.uk/ . See also Iain Aitch’s exploration of Englishness in college outline A Fête too Far. A Journey through an English Summer (London: Review Books, 2003), inside flap. xvii) Speculation ranges from a ‘Mitteleuropäisch tinge’ to his original name to rumours that he was born ‘east of the Rhine’ as the illegitimate child of ‘the shirebred wife of a Hungarian glass manufacturer and a visiting chauffeur from Loughborough’ and the conspiracy theory that he was born ‘the son of a humble Mr and Mrs Pitman, long since paid off’ ( EE , 33). Crucially, Sir Jack does his best to promote the myth surrounding his origins. xviii) Ribeiro, ‘On Englishness in Dress,’ 17.
xx) See here also my article “England? Whose England? (Re)constructing English identities in Julian Barnes and W.G. Sebald”, National Identities 10.2 (2008, June): 16784. xxi) Frederick M. Holmes, Julian Barnes (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 93. xxii) Matthew Pateman, Julian Barnes (Tavistock: Northcote House, 2002), 78. xxiii) Pateman, Julian Barnes , 72. xxiv) See Pateman, Julian Barnes , 73ff. xxv) Pateman, Julian Barnes , 75.
xxvi) Gareth Young at http://whatenglandmeanstome.co.uk/?p=76. xxvii) Ribeiro, ‘On Englishness in Dress’, 15. xxviii) Nick Bentley, Contemporary British Fiction (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008),184. We encourage anyone to algebra, comment, please consult the. Theresa May is desperately clinging to power, relying on the DUP, the hard-right party that has blocked same-sex marriage, and kept abortion illegal. Worse still, they're bankrolled by dark money – we've exposed the essay, shady group behind their lavish pro-Brexit campaigning, but they're still refusing to term, name their secret donors.
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