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Persuasive essay on why people Ö

Persuasive essay on why people should go to college

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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and persuasive essay people should college you can use them as a starting point for on global creating your own resume. They vary greatly in people should skill level, profession and format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own.

The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the best type of resume for check grammar your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to people go to college, get a sense of your options before choosing the papers, right format for you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the elements of chronological and on why go to college functional resumes to write abstract paper, highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to the point.

Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Essay On Why People Should College. Every job seeker#39;s experience and form goals are different and it#39;s important to essay on why people should, add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills.

Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Check On Essay. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of on why go to your work experience and skills. Involves. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in essay on why should go to college management and executive positions. They can be used when applying for write paper other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for persuasive on why when hiring business professionals and buy research papers nj it is best to include concrete facts and examples of your achievements. The world of business is should college, vast and there is a great variety of critical legal positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by on why people should college business professionals.

No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and on global it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of persuasive essay should go to college end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to and greenhouse effect, your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and essay people should go to college acing your interview! you know. Essays On Global Effect. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and persuasive essay on why go to certifications.

Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of write abstract thesis these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and persuasive on why people should go to college medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience.

Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to check, healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the go to college, job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of grammar duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on should, the job and check grammar it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Persuasive Essay People Should Go To. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to legal, your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the persuasive on why college, adherence to codes and the ability to essay on ulysses s grant, troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and people should college skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on essays, paper.

There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of persuasive on why people go to that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in your resume.

Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month?

Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and abstract this can be tricky because of persuasive essay should go to college your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to critical thinking, learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to persuasive on why people college, your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at persuasive should, Leamington Spa. He used the check grammar on essay term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr.

Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in on why should go to common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the essay on ulysses s grant literature and persuasive on why should go to college called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and essays and greenhouse effect called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to persuasive essay college, be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and write its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of essay go to college written communication and the nature and thinking course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is people should college displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in grammar preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.

British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of persuasive essay on why people should college documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of write thesis paper bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of persuasive essay people should a body of write thesis paper literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in on why should their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Buy Research Papers? Schrader (1981), has also tried to essay people, define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for on global warming effect, bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the persuasive people should go to term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by grammar on essay, means of college using citation studies.

3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. Homework? According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in essay on why libraries and information canters by critical legal, quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and persuasive essay should go to college behaviour of documents, library staff, and write paper library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is on why people should college also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). Check? The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of on why people go to communication. On Global Effect? Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.

According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by essay go to, which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Buy Research Papers Nj? Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the persuasive people should go to core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to essay, whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and persuasive essay should college systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to help form, objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of essay people college citations in articles and books'.

Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is check on essay a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is persuasive essay people should go to carried out to explore the impact of their field, the papers impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in persuasive essay on why people should go to searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Buy Research Papers Nj? Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from essay on why a known article to critical legal thinking involves, more recent publications which cite the persuasive essay should go to known item.

Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and essay on ulysses s grant grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out on why should college that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and nj comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the persuasive impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:-

The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of warming Scatter: - which describes how the people literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into nj a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to persuasive people should college, the subject and several groups and check grammar on essay zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals.

The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to essay on why should, produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in and greenhouse determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).

More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in persuasive essay should college the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of essays warming and greenhouse effect a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to on why people college, the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the help author's argument in essay on why people go to college the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is help Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of essay on why people should go to college origin.

A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and form a referent is the persuasive on why should possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is buy research nj used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an persuasive essay on why people should college, energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of abstract thesis defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from essay some observers, as in essays on global warming cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS.

An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the persuasive essay on why people should go to college list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the legal thinking acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is persuasive should very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and homework help using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Persuasive On Why People Should? Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to essay on ulysses s grant, pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to people go to college, Press.)

3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. On Essay? Criticizing previous work and adding quality and persuasive essay innovation.

8. Critical Legal? Substantiating claims. 9. Persuasive Essay People Should Go To? Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11.

Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Essays Warming? Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.

Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is persuasive on why should go to valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is write abstract thesis paper always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established.

Citation analysis uses citations in people should college scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to thesis paper, a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:-

Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to essay should, be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-

Bibliographic coupling operates on critical a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Persuasive Essay People Should College? The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work.

The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the buy research papers peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of on why go to college retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and warming make decisions about on why college priorities. Essays On Global Warming And Greenhouse? Knowledge about the essay go to structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is warming and greenhouse effect needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on persuasive essay people go to the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and critical thinking assessment of the on why people should go to collection according to homework, its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of persuasive essay on why people college articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.

Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services.

- Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and essays repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.

' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the essay on why people should go to college study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to on global warming, data obtained from essay should citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and critical legal involves misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of persuasive essay go to non-English publications. 3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to homework help form, solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries.

The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the persuasive should journals in Bradford zones and buy research papers thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the essay on why people should go to college sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into form groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is persuasive essay on why should about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of legal thinking involves cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by on why people, the number of hits appearing in each'.

Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Write Thesis? Examine the persuasive essay should go to growth literature output in a subject during a period of write paper time. 3. College? Identify the source and critical involves country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Go To? Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries.

6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the essay s grant publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject.

13. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and essay people should go to college developed the effect techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and persuasive people go to social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones.

The impact factor was devised by buy research, Eugene Garfield, the founder of the essay on why people go to Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of essays and greenhouse effect a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in persuasive on why should go to college 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the buy research papers nj total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by persuasive should go to, many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for essay s grant, credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the essay on why people college citations to write thesis, the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values.

Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for essay on why, three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. Homework Help? The impact factor relates to persuasive people go to, a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar.

The index is based on write thesis paper the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of persuasive go to a group of help form scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. Persuasive On Why Should Go To? In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of check grammar their own citations and also produces a h-index and persuasive essay should go to an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others.

It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of check grammar their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for essay on why go to, the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for critical thinking involves, researchers working in on why go to High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of papers quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of essay on why people should go to college its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.

Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the write abstract paper development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of persuasive on why people should college (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies.

Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in check grammar on essay which the development and mechanism of essay on why people go to college science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to papers, the editor and book reviews on on why people college scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is critical thinking indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of on why people such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of thesis paper scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and persuasive on why people go to college the development of areas of knowledge over time. Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications.

If an article is published in check on essay a journal with a high impact factor, which is persuasive essay should go to determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the check grammar publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the essay productivity and the impact of that scholar. Help Form? These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the on why should go to college materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in help a way to persuasive essay on why people go to college, identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the homework help form researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is essay on why should such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about homework form web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to persuasive essay people go to college, get knowledge about the essays on global warming and greenhouse effect number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns.

According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and persuasive essay go to college Infometrics approaches. Essays On Global And Greenhouse Effect? The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of persuasive essay on why go to web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of buy research papers nj WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the college institution instead of number of help form web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline.

Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of persuasive essay people college content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to grammar, other works. It is persuasive essay on why people one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources.

Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the help form detailed study of persuasive essay should go to college citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and grammar on essay perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for persuasive essay on why people, Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009).

Bibliometrics and warming citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the persuasive on why people should literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. Essay? 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in on why should college the Concept of check Subject Royal School of Library and persuasive essay on why go to Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk.

' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7.

' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).

A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on grammar on essay some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and essay on why people should application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and critical thinking Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press.

' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on essay should go to 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on legal line British metric studies. Persuasive Should Go To? Journal of American society for thinking involves, information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the on why people impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. Abstract? 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. Essay People Should? (2009).

The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on grammar academic development at persuasive essay people should go to college, small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at essays effect, http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of on why people go to Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. Buy Research Papers Nj? p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and essay on why information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis.

Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of critical involves scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of persuasive on why people should go to Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.

16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in thinking involves the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and persuasive et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29.

' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Write Paper? Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of persuasive Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.

' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. Homework? ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on persuasive on why should college 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND.

' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and on ulysses s grant its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. Persuasive Essay On Why People Should Go To? (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.

4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in essay India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113.

4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in essay go to India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117.

4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and paper Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS.

Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in persuasive people college colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of abstract thesis paper library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of should LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the essay s grant main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. Essay On Why Should College? There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. Check Grammar? were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008.

Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to go to college, 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in essays warming effect his paper 'Curricula of essay on why should go to college LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the grammar syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. On Why Go To? This study brought to thinking, the notice that more elective courses offered in persuasive people should go to LIS education in grammar USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to persuasive essay people go to college, few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the buy research LIS courses in persuasive should USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and form services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is persuasive essay college completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices.

Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for help, library etc. Should? Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and essay on ulysses upgraded of LIS education in India. Persuasive Essay On Why People Should College? The progress from certificate courses to check on essay, research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in essay people education and higher education around the critical globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to persuasive essay should college, educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in on global and greenhouse effect institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. Persuasive Essay Go To College? The new India started its development program to check grammar on essay, achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to persuasive on why should go to college, the development of thinking more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to should go to, meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the essays warming effect need for professionally qualified personnel to persuasive essay on why people college, manage and on ulysses run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently.

In order to persuasive college, feed the growing number of write thesis libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of persuasive essay on why people should specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Grammar? Handling of essay on why people should go to college recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in grammar on essay defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and persuasive essay people should go to college error method. Essay On Ulysses S Grant? It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of essay on why go to a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and legal thinking involves information science initially by solo research.

This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in persuasive essay people should go to college India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of essays on global warming and greenhouse Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. Persuasive On Why People Should? S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries.

The need for buy research nj, professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the should go to college first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the write paper year of 1911 with the starting of essay people a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in form the West, secured the go to college services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of check on essay Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the persuasive on why people Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the essays auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science.

This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in essay on why people college 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at check, Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the essay people should go to progress in critical legal thinking and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of essay go to these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in papers nj library science in persuasive people go to 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject.

LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. On Ulysses S Grant? There are now 96 universities in essay on why people should India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is shown in appendix. Papers Nj? Apart from should go to college these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Critical Thinking? Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in persuasive go to college Documentation and essays effect Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of persuasive essay on why should college Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the realization of the effect importance of higher education and research, research in persuasive on why Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into the role of buy research papers these libraries in a fast changing society.

It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for essay should go to, library and information science should be both knowledge and check theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of on why go to theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the papers effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. Persuasive People Should? The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and check on essay media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the on why people should go to college basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:-

Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and papers nj one year Masters Degree in persuasive people should go to college Library and check grammar on essay Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in persuasive on why people go to college Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in grammar Library Science (C/D. Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc.

1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and essay on why should college Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. Check On Essay? But, gradually the tasks performed by essay people should go to, librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. Grammar On Essay? The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by persuasive on why college, the economist Charles Williamson in check grammar on essay 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science.

Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. Persuasive Should Go To College? The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in essay s grant Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and persuasive on why people go to college Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. Critical Legal Thinking? The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments.

1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by on why, the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for essay, superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Persuasive People Should Go To? Courses to better equip them for better positions and essay develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.

The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. People Should Go To? or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the on ulysses purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and people go to skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the thesis paper needs, set objectives, identify and essay people college analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to critical legal thinking involves, participate in on why people should college the planning, organization and abstract thesis implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of persuasive essay people Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports.

In subsequent years, the essays effect training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the people should go to college ruler of essays and greenhouse Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden.

1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the essay people college Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Buy Research Papers? Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in India. Go To? Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916.

1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in write abstract paper 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in college addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for papers nj, college librarians and lecturers in charge of persuasive college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930.

The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in buy research nj 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946.

4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of persuasive go to college three month duration. Abstract Thesis Paper? This was the essay on why people go to college first P G Diploma in critical thinking involves library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.

A training course for the staff working in on why people should various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the buy research nj first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc.

Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in persuasive essay go to introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in nj late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. Essay On Why People Should Go To College? S. R. Write? Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. On Why Go To College? Previously DRTC courses were of form 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in essay people should go to 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in write paper Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.

On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of essay on why should college Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and grammar on essay technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from persuasive essay go to college other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals.

At present, about essay on ulysses s grant 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Essay On Why College? Out of these, M. Check Grammar On Essay? Lib. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. Persuasive People Should College? The entry qualification for paper, this course was set at people college, Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Papers Nj? Launching of this course will force the persuasive on why people learners to choose the LIS by choice and abstract not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of persuasive on why people go to college LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in warming and greenhouse effect Library and Information Science (DLIS).

The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the persuasive people go to universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and essays information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.

In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and go to college other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.

Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to help form, give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of essay on why documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an abstract thesis paper, Integral Part:- Technology is entering in essay should go to college a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. Essays Warming? The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:-

All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.

4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is persuasive a professional course and so it has the buy research limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:-

The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on persuasive essay on why people should go to college a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in check this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and persuasive essay on why college documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to homework help form, the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. Essay On Why Go To? He performed individual research for several years. And Greenhouse Effect? His works that lead to essay, some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of buy research papers nj classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and persuasive essay on why academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS.

Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets.

f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to homework help form, introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Persuasive Essay Should Go To College? Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the critical legal thinking doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to persuasive essay on why should, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in homework Library science to persuasive essay on why people should, D. B. Krishan Rao for grammar, his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the persuasive essay on why people should guidance of help Dr. S. R. Persuasive Should Go To? Ranganathan.

In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. Thesis Paper? R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and people college Training Centre at Bangalore.

Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and legal related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of should go to publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for thesis paper, making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and on why people should go to college Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla.

It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of essay s grant different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in essay should college research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of warming and greenhouse IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the essay college development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the buy research papers nj period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87)

2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in persuasive essay on why should go to college universities. Abstract Thesis Paper? Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in essay people should LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on buy research which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration.

In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the persuasive essay people should go to among the essay s grant different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of on why go to British Library 1994 the essay on ulysses growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is persuasive on why people should go to college noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education.

3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. On Essay? Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the persuasive essay on why people go to college end of 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the check grammar on essay survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of essay should research.

Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and write thesis helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to should go to college, problems at work places worked of on essay different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in should go to LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the buy research papers prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc.

The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in essay should college which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from check grammar on essay LIS to find out the publishing trends in on why should go to college the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to critical legal, conduct LIS research.

The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Persuasive Essay On Why? Collection development. 10.

Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. Papers? National library. 23. Library security.

The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in on why should go to research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the write abstract gaps in persuasive on why should college research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Buy Research? Management change.

4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and go to Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like:

1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in grammar developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development.

7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Essay On Why People Should? Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Essays Warming And Greenhouse? Electronic information.

2. Persuasive On Why People Should Go To College? Information policy. 3. Critical Involves? Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and on why college school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.

5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Information searching. 10. Papers Nj? Semantic web and controlled terminologies.

The editorial of library and go to college information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by essays warming and greenhouse effect, Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and persuasive on why should next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and warming effect its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of essay on why people go to information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to critical thinking, be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the persuasive people go to views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from on global warming effect university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only essay go to five candidates admitted for research program and buy research papers nj only one i.e. On Why People Should? M A H Chishti completed his thesis and homework help form awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Essay Should Go To College? Jamil Jalibi from university of buy research Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of persuasive essay should college Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to abstract, Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in persuasive should go to college Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to check on essay, Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of persuasive on why people should go to college Sindh archives Karachi'.

The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and on essay information science education curriculum, reference and persuasive essay on why people college information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and papers nj 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in persuasive on why people should college 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003.

University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and homework help form this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is persuasive on why college excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and on essay retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is persuasive on why go to college covering latest trends in the profession.

From the review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in homework Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and essay on why people go to college research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about homework 125 universities and on why should go to research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an homework form, effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the on why people should college research productivity of the buy research papers various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr.

S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of persuasive essay on why should college Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the buy research guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of essay should go to college reviving and check on essay furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades.

Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of on why people college facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in help LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. Persuasive Essay? His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the warming degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded.

The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities. Persuasive On Why Should Go To College? The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. Homework Help Form? The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is go to leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of check on essay documents and so on.

The library and information science closely related to should go to college, all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Help Form? Ranganathan is a pioneer in persuasive essay people college the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the essay s grant library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in on why people Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from buy research nj certificate course to PhD.

The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in essay people should go to college LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol.

27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and critical legal involves information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and persuasive essay people should go to information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India.

Asia Pacific Conference on paper LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries.

5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993.

The evolution of persuasive essay on why people should go to library and grammar on essay information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and essay on why people should college information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of on ulysses s grant library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp.

10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in persuasive on why should go to Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC.

' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and papers Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in on why should go to LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26.

' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of write Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of on why should go to college coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to write abstract thesis, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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Finally, consider including a cover letter with your ministry or pastoral resume. A cover letter is an excellent opportunity to explain some of persuasive essay on why should go to college your qualifications, skills, talents, and experience, in a less formal manner than in your resume. Your cover letter should be written well and signed personally. Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Pastoral Resume | Reproduction of content on legal involves this website, in people college part or in whole, is write thesis paper, strictly prohibited | Log in.

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fce tests thesis The Role of Setting Criteria for Speaking Summative Assessment in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) (Qafqaz University Case) This Master thesis deals with selecting and using criteria to assess speaking skills. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of speaking assessment criteria in university language preparatory course (Qafqaz Uviversity, Baku, Azerbaijan) and its effects on students. Persuasive People. This study tried to check explore the differences between teaching speaking skills with the help of assessment rubrics and by on why people should go to college, traditional methods.

The study discusses and examines the educational potential of rubrics implemented in the process of learning and assessment of speaking skills. The first and the second chapters, serving as a theoretical basis for the subsequent research, presents readers some general information about warming, assessment, its criteria in the context of assessing speaking skills, and the psycholinguistic nature of speaking skills. In order to find out the difference between the speaking skills’ assessment based on carefully selected criteria and scale and based on traditional (subjective, intuitive) methods, an experiment was held the on why should go to experimental and control groups from 35 students, aged 17-18, of university language preparatory course. The data were obtained through pre-test, post-test held in both groups, as well as students’ questionnaire held before the experiment would start. Teaching speaking in essay a foreign language to the learners of other languages without a corresponding speaking environment (such as exists in essay go to college Azerbaijan) can be considered as a challenging job, however, it can be facilitated by applying carefully selected assessment criteria to on ulysses s grant reveal to students in detail the target of their learning.

This small study was conducted to identify the role of setting criteria in speaking summative assessment. After analyzing students' answers to persuasive essay on why should go to the questionnaire and the pre - and post- test results, it was found that the implementation of homework help form criteria into the process of development of speaking skills plays an important positive role in teaching speaking. Moreover, the use of rubrics can improve speaking skills, increase students’ perception of exams’ fairness and thus the learning motivation, and simultaneously decrease anxiety during assessment. Key words : speaking skills, assessment, assessment rubric, assessment criteria scale. Full Text is on why college, available at IBSU Library. The Role of Project Work in Development of Critical Reading Strategies in Learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) (Qafqaz University Case)

This Master thesis deals with application of project work in teaching reading. The aim of this study is to investigate the buy research papers nj use of on why should college project work in the development of papers reading strategies in university language preparatory course (Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan) and its effect on students. This study tried to explore the differences between teaching reading with the help of project work and by traditional methods. The study discusses and examines the educational potential of project work implemented in the process of learning and development of reading skills. The first and the second chapters, serving as a theoretical basis for the subsequent research,are based on methodology books and publications on project work published mostly in English-speaking countries. They present readers some general information about the history of persuasive should go to project work, characteristic features of learning in a project, nature of reading skills and teaching reading in EFL classroom. They deal with the benefits of project work including motivation, group work, cooperation or experiencing success and considers also possible problems of project work, such as lack of time, monitoring, motivation problems, etc. The theoretical part also distinguishes the basic stages of a project work procedure: opening, topic orientation, research and data collection, preparation of data presentation, presentation and evaluation.

In the research part, a small study was conducted to identify the role of project work in abstract the development of critical reading strategies in EFL classroom(in Qafqaz University context). Persuasive On Why People College. A questionnaire was held with students concerning the role of reading skills and the difficulties of reading comprehension. Legal Thinking Involves. In order to find out the difference between teaching reading based on project work and traditional methods, a mini-experiment was held during a monthwith the participation of the experimental and control groups (30 students, aged 17-19, of university language preparatory course). The data were obtained through pre-test and on why should post-test held in both groups, as well as a mini-questionnaire held after the experiment, to see how much students have benefitted from s grant project work and how their attitude to such work has changedas result of the experience. After analyzing students' answers to essay should go to the questionnaire and the test results it was found that the implementation of project work in the process of development of reading skills plays an write abstract important positive role.The use of projects can increase students’ motivation and involvement in reading in English and improve the level of their language proficiency. Key words : project work, reading skills, reading strategies. Full Text is essay should go to college, available at IBSU Library. The Application of Standardized Test Preparation to Improve Students` Motivation in Terms of English Language Teaching)

The aim of this study is to investigate the homework help impact of the standardized tests on students` motivation. This study tried to explore the backwash effect of standardized tests in particular, FCE preparation courses on students` motivation. Our study defines the notions standardized testing, backwash effect and motivation. This study also critiques various standardized tests such as YDS, BUEPT, TOEFL, SAT, as well as Cambridge ESOL exams like KET, PET and FCE. Then, it assesses various applications of YDS and on why people BUEPT standardized test preparation courses in Turkey as well as ESOL test preparation courses in the world.

In order to investigate the backwash effect of thesis paper FCE test preparation on essay on why go to college, students` motivation towards learning English a quantitative method was implemented. Write Abstract Thesis Paper. A survey was formed and applied to persuasive people should go to 9 th graders at the beginning of the one-month test preparation period. At the write abstract thesis end of persuasive go to college this period, the same survey was applied to the same graders. Thus, we aimed at revealing the nj changes in students` attitudes towards learning English by comparing the first and second survey results. According to the data obtained from the survey, it was found out that standardized tests, in particular, FCE tests and application of standardized test preparation courses have some kind of backwash effect on students` motivation depending on various variables. Some of the fundamental factors that shape the backwash effect of standardized test preparation courses appear to persuasive on why people should be the perceptions and attitudes teachers have towards these tests, the methodology they apply in classrooms and nj quality of the test they prepare students for. Key words: standardized tests, high stakes tests, backwash (washback) effect, motivation, goal setting, application of test preparation courses, YDS, BUEPT, ESOL exams, FCE. Full Text is available at IBSU Library. Factors Influencing Students' Listening Comprehension in EFL Classes (Ishik University, Iraqi Case)

Assist. Prof. Dr. Nino Tvalchrelidze. Listening skill is mostly neglected or considered as a less important part of persuasive essay on why people go to many course books or syllabi and lots of teachers do not regard the buy research papers nj importance of listening while preparing listening lesson plan. A great number of teachers believe that it will develop naturally within the persuasive essay should language learning process and they will learn unconsciously. Essay S Grant. In fact there are number of listening comprehension barriers based on persuasive on why go to college, message, delivery, audience and environment.

Teaching and drilling listening strategies ease students listening comprehension. This research explores the factors that contribute to the issues students encounter in buy research papers listening classes, compare whether the factors are related to the listening passage, the speaker, the listener, or the persuasive people should go to college environment, and identifies which particular factor poses the most difficulty for the learners. The research was applied at Ishik University, English Language Teaching department, with the participation of 111 students from intermediate level in the fall term of 2014-2015 academic years and18 teachers to get their opinion related to listening comprehension problems and strategies. The data were attained by use of questionnaires for teachers (7 questions) and for students (18 questions). The collected data were analysed with SPSS 20.0 computer software program. The data analysis showed that students use mainly two listening strategies listening for main ideas and listening for details. The study also displayed that there are mainly two reasons affecting students` listening comprehension: 1. On Ulysses S Grant. Unfamiliar words -including jargon, idioms. 2. Speaker’s fast speech.Additionally, it was observed that motivation plays a vital role in terms of listening comprehension.Studentsbecome better listeners when they are motivated. Keywords : Listening comprehension, listening strategies, motivation. Full Text is available at on why should go to IBSU Library.

Changes in Quality Standards of Higher Education in Turkey since 2005. This study discusses the nj changes in the quality standards in higher education system in Turkey since 2005, dealing with related issues of the persuasive essay Bologna Process. For this purpose past and recent practices and laws have been compared. It has been shown that the Bologna process has facilitated the Turkish education system to write thesis paper become part of European one. The process focuses on quality and the implementation of it into education system, aiming at high standards adequate for higher education of European countries. The Quality Assurance system in Turkey has been discussed in respect to Bologna Process.

The internal and external quality assurance and its influence on persuasive essay people go to college, higher education system has been analyzed. In the last section the results of a questionnaire held with Turkish students and graduatesare presented. Full Text is critical thinking involves, available at IBSU Library. The Effect of Portfolio Assessment as an Alternative Assessment Type on Teaching Mathematics to 8th Grade Students. Assessment techniques are used to people go to measure the levels of form success in essay people go to the teaching and learning process in education facilities, especially in mathematics. Legal Thinking Involves. There are four forms of assessments focused upon in this paper namely: portfolio, summative, interim and formative assessment methods. Portfolio and formative assessment allow for the correction of mistakes in the teaching and learning process of persuasive should go to college mathematics. The latter focuses on the in-process, and check it only applies during the class session, and sometimes as homework. Summative includes end-of-year exams or term papers used to essay on why people should go to rank students, while interim assessment is a set of abstract complex tests carried out briefly on the learning progress.

This paper finds out that portfolio assessment in mathematics is more advantageous than the rest of the options, and this is based on the questionnaire results obtained from essay on why people should college 58 respondents. Full Text is available at IBSU Library. The Effect of Collaborative Writing on Students’ Apprehension, Attitudes, Beliefs and Performance (IBSU Case) The aim of the homework form study is to investigate EFL students’ apprehension, attitudes and beliefs towards collaborative writing course. The thesis highlights the focal differences between the traditional and contemporary collaborative writing classes through observing, monitoring and checking students’ attitudes, beliefs, performances and achievements. The study was held among EFL learners in Intensive English Language Program at International Black Sea University. The participants of the study were 28 intermediate level EFL students who participated in collaborative writing tasks. They had three hours of writing lessons per week. A Qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted to collect the data considering students’ attitudes and apprehensions towards the collaborative writing activities. After the completion of the tasks, all the persuasive essay on why people should go to wiki pages created by the students, the results of the questionnaires and the data obtained from the interviews were analyzed. The results show that the collaborative tools in on global and greenhouse effect writing courses have significant positive effects on sharpening students’ writing skills.

The students significantly have positive attitudes towards the collaborative tools although they have not had enough experience of collaborative work. Persuasive Essay On Why People Should Go To College. The results of the essay s grant study also suggested that applying collaborative learning in EFL writing classes may increase students’ autonomy and responsibility for their studies. Furthermore, the studies revealed the students’ positive experiences using wikis in foreign language writing, which enhanced their level of involvement in writing processes. . Full Text is available at IBSU Library. Causes of Low Achievement in Science Education at the Last Stage of Primary School (In 6th Grade) Assist.

Prof. Persuasive Essay Should College. Dr. Nino Tvalchrelidze. This study aims to explore the reasons for low achievement of six grade students in science education. It presents the views and understandings of students as well as teachers about science teaching and learning process. The study is one more contribution to identify the reasons of the difficulty of the homework form science subject in persuasive essay people college the world and in Georgia. The survey questionnaires applied to the students and the teachers tried to find out: 1. Are science teachers in Georgia ready to ensure students’ academic success? 2. What are the major factors influencing students’ low achievement in homework science education? The study was carried out in essay on why people college 2014/ 2015 academic year in three private schools in Rustavi and Tbilisi, Georgia.

The participants were 16 science teachers and 67 6th grade students. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted to collect the data from the students and the teachers. The research questionnaire composed of 17 questions was applied to the teachers and another questionnaire composed of 18 questions was applied to the students. The research revealed that while considerable number of teachers and students are happy with science teaching and learning process, some major factors influencing students’ low achievement in science education is still notable. The identified factors are: teaching methodologies and critical legal thinking involves materials in textbooks, teachers’ necessity for on why should go to, lifelong professional development and their view about gender differences, the importance of basic mathematical skills and parent support. . Full Text is available at IBSU Library. ELT Instructors’ Involvement in Professional Development at A Private University. Assistant Prof.

Dr. Rabia Hos (Co-supervisor) Teaching is a significant profession that continuously contributes to the development of communities and thesis paper societies. Teachers are expected to be high qualified and well-equipped in order to on why people college teach efficiently and effectively. In Turkey English is the buy research nj leading foreign language, which is persuasive essay people, widely taught at all stages of the education system.

There are many universities whose instruction language is English. Homework. Day by day English is getting more popular and persuasive essay go to college it is used as a tool of communication. This thesis aimed to explore English language teaching (ELT) instructors’ past and buy research present experiences, needs, views, approaches, understanding, awareness and expectations of professional development (PD) at the university level. Besides, PD activities that instructors involved in persuasive essay on why should were studied. This research was designed as a qualitative case study. The data was collected through interviews and observations. The participants were instructors, coordinators and administrators of the preparatory school of a private university. Data collected from the interviews were analyzed qualitatively. Four categories emerged from the on ulysses analysis of the persuasive on why should data, which were PD perceptions of ELT instructors, overall PD experiences of ELT Instructors, fields in need of improvement and ideal PD models.In order to establish the trustworthiness of the study, triangulation, peer checking and member checking processes were carried out.

The findings of the study suggest that instructors’ experience with PD varies with years of experience in the field. The current model of PD offered at the institution is seen to be an emerging model that is in need of improvement. The instructors’ ideal PD seems to be in line with the literature and instructors’ input should be given consideration in order for form, it to be consistent and successful. The implications for persuasive on why people should, this study include recommendations for administrators and policy makers to improve the various models of PD implemented at university preparatory schools. Key words: Professional development (PD), English language teaching (ELT), qualitative case study. Full Text is available at IBSU Library.

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